Particle Physics


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最近, 我介绍了粒子和相互作用,以我女儿的同学谁是打算前往德国电子同步加速器研究所的演讲, 德国,想拥有这是什么一回事的想法. 由于我的这种先说说, 我有点紧张,因为我不知道什么级别, 和背景, 我应该挂在谈话. 我不想弄得太基本, 我本以为这是浪费时间. 我也不想让它太技术, 这也将使得它以不同的方式无用.

到底, 我决定把它有点哲学, 和互动,因为我可以. 我觉得学生们喜欢它. 在任何情况下, 因为我的疑虑, 在演讲中,我在准备, 我想我将成为一个电子书和博客系列我的工作. 我希望你喜欢它,就像学生做.

What Can You Expect?

In this post series, you can expect a non-technical description of modern physics, which consists of the developments after the turn of the 20th century. Although you use these developments everyday, in your gadgets and gizmos, the physics you learned in high school largely ignores them. 其结果, when you read about certain breakthroughs in research, you don’t have a feel for why they are important. After reading these posts, you should expect to know the following:

  • What is it that you learned in high school?
  • Why did they have to change it circa 1900?
  • What is everything made up of? What holds it all together?
  • What is Quantum Mechanics? Why do people believe it such a bizarre theory?
  • What is Special and General Relativity? Why is Einstein such a godlike figure in modern physics?
  • What is this Higgs business? Why are people excited about it?
  • Why do they spend so much money on particle accelerators? What are they anyway? How do they work?
  • What are the unanswered questions in physics?
  • What about this dark matter and dark energy?
  • What is string theory? Why strings?
  • Grand Unified Theory? Quantum Gravity? What the heck?

当然, you will get only qualitative answers to these questions. But my hope is that you will get a whole new worldview, or a framework that puts things in perspective, and ignites your curiosity so that you will want to learn more. For that reason, wherever possible, I will point you to other resources and further reading.


In this post series, we will be dealing with things of very different sizes. 在我们开始之前, 因此, 我们必须让我们使用长度和尺度单位的想法, 这示于下表和图中.

名称 Size Scale
公里 - 公里 1000 m Distance between places
仪表 - 米 1 m Height of a human being
厘米 - 厘米 1/100 m Human nail
毫米 - 毫米 1/1000 m Thickness of human nail
千分尺 (微米) 微米 1/1000 mm Bacteria
纳米 - 纳米 1/1000 微米 Molecules
皮米 - 下午 1/1000 nm Subatomic scale.
一个原子是关于 110 下午
Femtometer - FM 1/1000 fm Atomic nucleus

Length Scales

Image by Guillaume Paumier, Philip Ronan, NIH, Artur Jan Fijałkowski, Jerome Walker, Michael David Jones, Tyler Heal, Mariana Ruiz, Science Primer (National Center for Biotechnology Information), Liquid_2003, Arne Norman & The Tango! Desktop Project [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons


The title of this work is Of Structure and Interactions. 它是关于物质结构, 和构成颗粒间的相互作用. 我们试图回答的问题是: 我们是什么, 我们周围的一切, 组成的? The answer, unfortunately, 依赖于人,我们问, 和环境,使他们认为.

如果你问一个生物学家, 答案是细胞. 生活生物学涉及的单位, 大体上, 是小区. 一个单元的尺寸是几个微米. 的细菌大约一微米, 我们可以用显微镜看到它 (这就是为什么我们把它称为显微镜). 生物还涉及本身大分子, 像DNA和蛋白质, 其尺寸为几纳米, 并在这方面, molecular biology overlaps with another science, 化学.

与分子化学优惠, 原子和债券. 它基本上是关于外层电子的原子与另一个的相互作用. 事物的大小是与范围为0.1nm交易 (原子) 到几纳米,在分子. 要化学家, 物质是由原子构成的.

我们要看看这里的物理尺寸与小型交易, 比原子更小. 有趣的是, 所有原子具有大致相同的尺寸, 大约为0.1nm. 原子核, 另一方面, 具有不同的尺寸, 但至少 10,000 倍,比原子还小. 在粒子物理学, 我们真的问什么事是由问题, 在粒子比原子核的那些更小的水平. 以及它们如何相互交互.

物理 - 最根本的?

看,这些不同的主题处理的对象的秤, 我们大概可以宣称物理比化学更根本, 这是比生物学更基本. 如果我们知道一切有了解粒子间的相互作用, 我们可以, 在理论上, “派生” 所有从物理学化学. 在这个意义上, 物理化学涵括, 而事实上人类知识的所有其他领域.

这个概念有关的特殊, 物理学的基本性质可能看起来合理, 但它是放错了地方, 我们将在接下来的文章中看到.