Archivo de la etiqueta: lógica

Evolución–La lógica invertida

La evolución se describe generalmente como “la supervivencia del más apto,” o como especie en evolución para adaptarse al entorno. Para sobrevivir, evolucionando, para adaptar—estos son verbos de acción, lo que implica algún tipo de intención o plan general. Pero hay una curiosa inversión de la lógica, o inversión de la causalidad en la teoría de la evolución. Esto es casi lo contrario de la intención o plan.

Es más fácil de ilustrar esta lógica invertida utilizando ejemplos. Suponga que usted está en una isla tropical, disfrutando del buen tiempo y de la hermosa playa. Te dices a ti mismo, “Esto es perfecto. Esto es el paraíso!” Por supuesto, existe algún gen específico que contiene el proyecto original de su proceso cerebral que le lleva a sentir de esta manera. Es lógico pensar que puede tener mutaciones genéticas sido en algún momento, lo que hizo que algunas personas odian este tipo de paraíso. Es posible que hayan preferido Alaska en invierno. Evidentemente, tales genes tenían una oportunidad ligeramente inferior de la supervivencia porque los inviernos de Alaska no son tan saludables como paraísos tropicales. Durante millones de años, estos genes consiguieron casi exterminados.

Lo que esto significa es que el paraíso tropical no tiene una belleza intrínseca. Ni siquiera es que usted encuentra es hermoso. Belleza no reside necesariamente en los ojos del espectador. Es más como existen los ojos porque somos el tipo de gente que se encuentra este tipo de entornos hospitalarios hermosa.

Otro ejemplo de la inversión de la lógica en la evolución es la razón por la que encontramos bebés lindos lindos. Nuestros genes sobrevivieron, y estamos aquí porque somos el tipo de personas que se encontrarían los bebés sanos lindo. Esta inversión de la causalidad tiene implicaciones en todas las facetas de nuestra existencia, todo el camino hasta nuestra noción del libre albedrío.

Ref: Este post es un extracto de mi libro, El universo Unreal.

Zen y el arte del mantenimiento de la motocicleta

Una vez, Yo tenía algunas dudas sobre mi salud mental. Después de todo, si usted se encuentra cuestionando el carácter real de la realidad, usted tiene que preguntarse — es la realidad de que es irreal, o su cordura?

Cuando compartí mis preocupaciones con este amigo con inclinaciones filosóficas de la mina, ella me tranquilizó, “La cordura está sobrevalorada.” Después de leer Zen y el arte del mantenimiento de la motocicleta, Creo que tenía razón. Tal vez ella no va lo suficientemente lejos — puede ser la locura es manera subestimado.

Zen y el arte del mantenimiento de la motocicleta define la locura como el proceso de dar un paso fuera de mythos; mythos siendo la suma total de nuestro conocimiento combinado pasan de generación en generación, la “sentido común” que precede lógica. Si la realidad no es de sentido común, lo que es? Y dudar de lo real de la realidad, casi por definición, es salirse de los límites del mito. Por lo que cabe; mis preocupaciones eran fundadas de hecho.

Pero un buen ajuste no es garantía de la “rectitud” de una hipótesis, como Zen y el arte del mantenimiento de la motocicleta nos enseña. Dado el tiempo suficiente, siempre podemos llegar a una hipótesis que se ajuste a nuestras observaciones. El proceso de la hipótesis a partir de observaciones y experiencias, es como tratar de adivinar la naturaleza de un objeto a partir de la sombra que proyecta. Y una proyección es precisamente lo que nuestra realidad es — una proyección de formas desconocidas y procesos en nuestro espacio sensorial y cognitivo, en nuestros mitos y logos. Pero aquí, I may be pushing my own agenda rather than the theme of the book. Pero encaja, no lo hace? Es por eso que me encontré murmurando “Exactamente!” una y otra vez durante mis tres lecturas del libro, y por qué lo voy a leer muchas veces más en el futuro. Recordemos de nuevo, un buen ajuste no dice nada acerca de la rectitud de una hipótesis.

One such reasonable hypothesis of ours is about continuity We all assume the continuity of our personality or selfhood, which is a bit strange. I know that I am the same person I was twenty years ago — older certainly, wiser perhaps, but still the same person. But from science, I also know for a fact that every cell, every atom and every little fundamental particle in my body now is different from what constituted my body then. The potassium in the banana I ate two weeks ago is, for instance, what may be controlling the neuronal firing behind the thought process helping me write this essay. But it is still me, not the banana. We all assume this continuity because it fits.

Losing this continuity of personality is a scary thought. How scary it is is what Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance tells you. As usual, I’m getting a bit ahead of myself. Let’s start at the beginning.

In order to write a decent review of this book, it is necessary to summarize the “story” (which is believed to be based on the author’s life). Like most great works of literature, the story flows inwards and outwards. Outwardly, it is a story of a father and son (Pirsig and Chris) across the vast open spaces of America on a motorbike. Inwardly, it is a spiritual journey of self-discovery and surprising realizations. At an even deeper level, it is a journey towards possible enlightenment rediscovered.

The story begins with Pirsig and Chris riding with John and Sylvia. Right at the first unpretentious sentence, “I can see by my watch, without taking my hand from the left grip of the cycle, that it is eight-thirty in the morning,” it hit me that this was no ordinary book — the story is happening in the present tense. It is here and now — the underlying Zen-ness flows from the first short opening line and never stops.

The story slowly develops into the alienation between Chris and his father. The “father” comes across as a “selfish bastard,” as one of my friends observed.

The explanation for this disconnect between the father and the son soon follows. The narrator is not the father. He has the father’s body all right, but the real father had his personality erased through involuntary shock treatments. The doctor had reassured him that he had a new personality — not that he was a new personality.

The subtle difference makes ample sense once we realize that “he” and his “personality” are not two. And, to those of us how believe in the continuity of things like self-hood, it is a very scary statement. Personality is not something you have and wear, like a suit or a dress; it is what you are. If it can change, and you can get a new one, what does it say about what you think you are?

In Pirsig’s case, the annihilation of the old personality was not perfect. Besides, Chris was tagging along waiting for that personality to wake up. But awakening a personality is very different from waking a person up. It means waking up all the associated thoughts and ideas, insights and enlightenment. And wake up it does in this story — Phaedrus is back by the time we reach the last pages of the book.

What makes this book such a resounding success, (not merely in the market, but as an intellectual endeavor) are the notions and insights from Phaedrus that Pirsig manages to elicit. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance is nothing short of a new way of looking at reality. It is a battle for the minds, yours and mine, and those yet to come.

Such a battle was waged and won ages ago, and the victors were not gracious and noble enough to let the defeated worldview survive. They used a deadly dialectical knife and sliced up our worldview into an unwieldy duality. The right schism, according to Phaedrus and/or Pirsig, would have been a trinity.

The trinity managed to survive, albeit feebly, as a vanquished hero, timid and self-effacing. We see it in the Bible, for instance, as the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. We see it Hinduism, as its three main gods, and in Vedanta, a line of thought I am more at home with, as Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram — the Truth, ???, the Beauty. The reason why I don’t know what exactly Shivam means indicates how the battle for the future minds was won by the dualists.

It matters little that the experts in Vedanta and the Indian philosophical schools may know precisely what Shivam signifies. I for one, and the countless millions like me, will never know it with the clarity with which we know the other two terms — Sundaram and Satyam, beauty and truth, Maya and Brahman, aesthetics and metaphysics, mind and matter. The dualists have so completely annihilated the third entity that it does not even make sense now to ask what it is. They have won.

Phaedrus did ask the question, and found the answer to be Quality — something that sits in between mind and matter, between a romantic and a classical understanding of the world. Something that we have to and do experience before our intellect has a chance to process and analyze it. Zen.

However, in doing so, Phaedrus steps outside our mythos, and is hence insane.

If insanity is Zen, then my old friend was right. Sanity is way overrated.

Photo by MonsieurLui

La logique

[The last of my French redactions to be blogged, this one wasn’t such a hit with the class. They expected a joke, but what they got was, well, this. It was written the day after I watched an air show on TV where the French were proudly showcasing their fighter technology.]

[In English first]

Science is based on logic. And logic is based on our experiences — what we learn during our life. But, because our experiences are incomplete, our logic can be wrong. And our science can lead us to our demise. When I watched the fighter planes on TV, I started thinking about the energy and effort we spend on trying to kill ourselves. It seems to me that our logic here had to be wrong.

A few months ago, I read a short story (by O.V. Vijayan, as a matter of fact) about a chicken who found itself in a cage. Everyday, by noon, the little window of the cage would open, a man’s hand would appear and give the chicken something to eat. It went on for 99 days. And the chicken concluded:

“Noon, hand, food — good!”

On the hundredth day, by noon, the hand appeared again. The chicken, all happy and full of gratitude, waited for something to eat. But this time, the hand caught it by the neck and strangled it. Because of realities beyond its experience, the chicken became dinner on that day. I hope we human beings can avoid such eventualities.

Les sciences sont basées sur la logique. Et la logique se base sur les expériences – ce que nous apprenons dans notre vie. Mais, comme nos expériences ne sont pas toujours completes, notre logique peut avoir tort. Et nos sciences peuvent nous diriger vers notre destruction. Lorsque je regardais les avions de combat à la télé, ils m’ont fait penser à l’énergie et aux efforts que nous gaspillons en essayant de nous tuer. Il me paraît que la
logique ici doit avoir tort.

J’ai lu une petite histoire d’une poule il y a quelques mois. Elle s’est trouvée dans une cage, un homme l’y avait mise. Chaque jour, vers midi, la petite fenêtre de la cage s’ouvrait, une main se montrait avec de quoi manger pour la poule. Ça s’est passé comme ça pendant quatre-vingt-dix-neuf jours. Et la poule a pensé:

“Aha, midi, main, manger – bien!”

Le centième jour est arrivé. Le midi, la main s’est montrée. La poule, toute heureuse et pleine de gratitude, attendait de quoi manger. Mais, cette fois, la main l’a prise par le cou et l’a étranglée. A cause des réalités au-delà de ses expériences, la poule est devenue le diner ce jour-là. J’espère que nous pourrons éviter les éventualités de cette sorte.