标记档案: 环境

Environmental issues like the planet, poverty etc.

Ethics In Business and Leadership

[这篇文章是给教授演讲. 苏里亚塞西在世界论坛伦理经营 – 国际领袖周一研讨会, 四月 2, 2012 新加坡. 经授权转载。]

我被要求支付的气候变化背景下的全球能源危机中恢复的可持续性的信任有关业务问题的广谱. 重要的, 我已经要求这样做的 10 反映分钟城邦我们是在效率.

首先,让我的道德和伦理价值之间的区别. 根据我今天早上听说, 似乎有道德和伦理之间的一些混乱. 前者定义了个性和基于对错或好坏的个人信仰. 后者本质上是标准和行为准则, 预期在特定的上下文, 从所述组的各所属的. 道德典型包括社会, 企业, 国民, 专业或其他类似的契约. 逐个, 我们考虑杀在道德上是错误的,但一支军队杀害了成千上万的被认为是合乎道德的,往往是装饰为勇敢的共同利益的行为.

商业企业, today, 由正直个人集体杀害我们用凶猛分享这个星球很大程度上载人, 力度和速度匹配的战争; 并获得奖励创造了前所未有的估值和竞争力至上. 消费消费的缘故, 增长增长的缘故, 利润的盈利和政策决策者的支持是为了维护所有上述的指导都是这些企业的伦理价值.

对地球生态环境的破坏人为过去 60 年超过了人类在其整个历史做了的损害 1950. 身体之间的微妙平衡, 化学和生物过程是维持地球作为一个相互依存的系统已经受到干扰. 地球已经表现出了比前半自然变化的范围之外以及移动中的最起码一万年. 在地球的动态具有非线性反馈突然生态变化, 导致灾难性的后果, 今天是一个现实的可能性. 道德应该是价格确定,而不是价格由市场决定. 在定价自然资本,而忽视随之而来的风险是助长了消费热潮.

重要的, 成长, 消费和带来的好处已经集中在少数特权. 顶端 20% 全球消耗的 80% 其而底部输出的 80% 住在平衡 20%. 底端 20% 生活在极端贫困在消费不足 $1.25 PPP /天或约50美分/天的名义美分的国家,如印度这是家庭对这些全球不幸的三分之一. 由收入贫困只是去, 生活低于这个门槛可怕的人数减少了一些回落 500 亿 - 几乎全部在中国减少因. 然而, 这包括诸如卫生更广泛的多维贫困指数, education, 性别平等, 访问, 权力等. 推动这些贫困人口的比例约 25% 全球人口的. 重要的, 人的全球贫困线以下的人数 $2 每天的消费购买力平价约为固执地保持 2.5 十亿或约 36 % 人性化.

现代能源消耗是人类发展指数完全相关 (HDI) 但依然未能底部 2.5 十亿谁留的能源饥渴. 而 1.5 十亿其中, 包括超过 500 亿来自印度, 有没有用上电, 2.2 billion, 包括一些 850 亿来自印度使用某种形式的生物质作为能源烹调食物的主要或唯一来源 –人类最基本的必需品. 一个更大的数字将被拒绝访问被我们以能源价格, 地球上速度最快的消耗自然资源之一, 在它的真正价值. 造成这种情况的主要原因是经精心待办事项的持续消耗不成比例.

经合组织国家, 与总人口不到印度享受世界上最高的生活水平. 然而,, 经合组织的增量商品能源消费期间 1997-2007 (在金融危机前); 是 3.2 倍印度. 在这段时期, 印度的全球商业能源消费的份额从上升 2.9% 至 3.6% 而OECD的市场份额从下跌 58% 以刚刚超过 50%. 这种下降是单独由于中国的市场份额增长,因为它成为了世界上最大的能源消费国.

能源消耗不成比例远差于数字显示. 在一个全球化的世界, 大企业已经被移动OECD的生产基地显著部分搜索更便宜的自然资本包括环境公地, 这虽然无价, 仍然可以在中国自由和发展中世界.

如果看一下温室气体排放上的消费基础,而不是生产其境内, 然后我 15 排放量同比增 47% 而美国的排放量有所上升 43% 因为 1990. 在欧盟15国进口的嵌入式排放约 33% 其境内的排放. 这转化为大约 3 吨进口嵌入式排放量人均. 嵌入式排放进口对美国是 20% 或约 4 吨/人 - 在 2000, 嵌入式排放的进口在美国和欧盟15国均水平分别只有 3% . 在进口美国和欧盟15国单独嵌入式排放是两次, 1.6 次分别为印度的人均温室气体排放总量.

我们正在通过他们的支持大企业和政策制定者告诉最大的谎言就是资源效率的答案是可持续性. 尽管在资源利用效率的巨大收益, 在当今世界消耗更多的自然资本比以往任何时候,我们都在汽车试点到至少 3.5 摄氏度升温. 如果警监会是正确的, 这将释放灾难性事件和世界的血光之灾在可预见的未来穷.

简单地说, 消费和生产的当前模式, 女士们先生们, 是不可持续的. CSR活动,如开办学校和医院或绿色洗涤板配有高效的灯是根本不够. 也有不足的是,第一个影响再仅仅满足目前的规定,只有在基于一个简单的成本效益分析货币的形式看到价值的商业思维

我们需要一个政策框架,首先限制我们使用化石燃料和其他形式的自然资本,然后逐步减少它在一个从摇篮到摇篮范式以创新推动. 我们的增长模式必须是一个包容一个由几个不可持续的减少和过度的重新分配至底部 50% 这个世界. 别, 我不求通过使贫富使贫民富翁 - 我只是寻求底部的右侧 50% 世界上有被消耗给予生命的尊严 50% 经合组织内的贫困水平. 目前的不公平,从而成为世界第三大经济体,按购买力平价计算 (印度) 在HDI方面处于第134位,拥有世界上最大的注意力不集中, 营养不良的成人和体重不足的孩子是不可持续的.

在保证代际资源公平方面开明的企业领导者不能只定义可持续性还能看到不删除当前的代内不公平,从而提供最小的适应能力底部的不可持续性 2.5 人类同胞在即将发生的突变气候事件的脸十亿.

在闭幕, 我引用圣雄甘地说谁: “世界上有足够的满足大家的需求,但不足以满足即使一个人的贪婪!

我感谢您的时间和精力.

Human Virus

On one poignantly beautiful autumn day in Syracuse, a group of us physics graduate students were gathered around a frugal kitchen table. We had our brilliant professor, Lee Smolin, talking to us. We held our promising mentors in very high regard. And we had high hopes for Lee.

The topic of conversation on that day was a bit philosophical, and we were eagerly absorbing the words of wisdom emanating from Lee. He was describing to us how the Earth could be considered a living organism. Using insightful arguments and precisely modulated glib articulation (毫无疑问, forged by years of intellectual duels in world’s best universities), Lee made a compelling case that the Earth, 事实上, satisfied all the conditions of being an organism.

Lee Smolin, 顺便说说, lived up to our great expectations in later years, publishing highly acclaimed books and generally leaving a glorious imprint in the world of modern physics. He now talks to global audiences through prestigious programmes such as the BBC Hardtalk, much to our pride and joy.

The point in Lee’s view was not so much whether or the Earth was literally alive, but that thinking of it as an organism was a viable intellectual model to represent the Earth. Such intellectual acrobatics was not uncommon among us physics students.

In the last few years, Lee has actually taken this mode of thinking much farther in one of his books, picturing the universe in the light of evolution. 同样, the argument is not to be taken literally, imagining a bunch of parallel universes vying for survival. The idea is to let the mode of thinking carry us forward and guide our thoughts, and see what conclusions we can draw from the thought exercise.

A similar mode of thinking was introduced in the movie Matrix. 事实上, several profound models were introduced in that movie, which probably fuelled its wild box-office success. One misanthropic model that the computer agent Smith proposes is that human beings are a virus on our planet.

It is okay for the bad guy in a movie to suggest it, but an entirely different matter for newspaper columnist to do so. But bear with me as I combine Lee’s notion of the Earth being an organism and Agent Smith’s suggestion of us being a virus on it. Let’s see where it takes us.

The first thing a virus does when it invades an organism is to flourish using the genetic material of the host body. The virus does it with little regard for the well-being of the host. On our part, we humans plunder the raw material from our host planet with such abandon that the similarity is hard to miss.

But the similarity doesn’t end there. What are the typical symptoms of a viral infection on the host? One symptom is a bout of fever. 同样, due to our activities on our host planet, we are going through a bout of global warming. Eerily similar, 在我看来.

The viral symptoms could extend to sores and blisters as well. Comparing the cities and other eye sores that we proudly create to pristine forests and natural landscapes, it is not hard to imagine that we are indeed inflicting fetid atrocities to our host Earth. Can’t we see the city sewers and the polluted air as the stinking, oozing ulcers on its body?

Going one step further, could we also imagine that natural calamities such as Katrina and the Asian tsunami are the planet’s natural immune systems kicking into high gear?

I know that it is supremely cynical to push this comparison to these extreme limits. Looking at the innocent faces of your loved ones, you may feel rightfully angry at this comparison. How dare I call them an evil virus? 然后再, if a virus could think, would it think of its activities on a host body as evil?

If that doesn’t assuage your sense of indignation, 记住,这个病毒比喻思维,而不是字面起诉书模式. 这种思维模式仅有用的,如果能得到一些结论. 什么是从这个人比较病毒的结论?

病毒感染的最终结果总是阴沉. 无论是主机屈从或病毒得到由宿主的免疫系统遭到殴打. 如果是病毒, 这两个不测都难吃. 我们不想杀死地球. 我们当然不希望被地球被消灭. 但这些都是我们的病毒样活性的这里的唯一可能的结果. 这是不可能的,我们会得到剿灭; 我们对此过于复杂. 在所有的可能性, 我们将尽我们的地球无法居住. 我们可能, by then, 有我们迁移到其他行星系统的技术手段. 换句话说, 如果我们是幸运的, 我们可能会传染! 这是这种智力练习的不可避免的结论.

有一个不太可能的情况 — 在宿主体内共生病毒的存在. 这是一种良性的生活方式戈尔和其他人推荐我们. 但, 在这个星球上采取我们的活动股票, 我的世界末日的看法是,它是一个和平共生为时已晚. 你有什么感想?

新年快乐!

这里的祝你快乐2010… 愿你的分辨率撑起高于过去几年的长. 愿你找到安宁, 幸福, 良好的健康和繁荣.

我这新的一年开始与阿凡达. 而其不那么微妙的反新保守主义的消息让我充满了一点乐观的,尽管所有的大屠杀在我们身边. 可能会有多一点耐心和今年的理解. 多一点分享与关怀. 少一点贪婪和攫取. 可能是没有失去一切尚未. 或者是它只是 这只青蛙 已经习惯的世界慢慢熬煮我还活着?

今年我的解决方法是做更多的光写. 博客和专栏写作, 就是说. 而花更多的时间与孩子们. 刚刚完成 我的第二本书, 我觉得我会有更多的时间, 并且不会驱赶他们离开. 可能是我现在可以耐心地听他们所有的愚蠢. Like 我爸 用来听雷.

Evolution–Inverted Logic

Evolution is usually described as “the survival of the fittest,” or as species evolving to adapt to the environment. To survive, to evolve, to adapt—these are action verbs, implying some kind of intention or general plan. But there is a curious inversion of logic, or reversal of causality in the theory of evolution. This is almost the opposite of intention or plan.

It is easiest to illustrate this inverted logic using examples. Suppose you are on a tropical island, enjoying the nice weather and the beautiful beach. You say to yourself, “This is perfect. This is paradise!” 当然, there is some specific gene containing the blue print of your brain process that leads you to feel this way. It stands to reason that there may have been genetic mutations at some point, which made some people hate this kind of paradise. They may have preferred Alaska in winter. Evidently, such genes had a slightly lower chance of survival because Alaskan winters are not as healthy as tropical paradises. Over millions of years, these genes got all but wiped out.

What this means is that the tropical paradise does not have an intrinsic beauty. It is not even that you happen to find it beautiful. Beauty does not necessarily lie in the eyes of the beholder. It is more like the eyes exist because we are the kind of people who would find such hospitable environments beautiful.

Another example of the inversion of logic in evolution is the reason we find cute babies cute. Our genes survived, and we are here because we are the kind of people who would find healthy babies cute. This reversal of causality has implications in every facet of our existence, all the way up to our notion of free will.

参考: This post is an excerpt from my book, 虚幻宇宙.

海啸,,en,亚洲海啸两年半前释放巨大的能量在沿海地区印度洋周边,,en,你觉得会一直都发生了这种能量,如果出现了没有水从地震中抬走,,en,如果地震,,en,相同种类和数量的,,en,采取了在陆地上而不是在海床的地方,因为它没有,,en,想必这能量会一直存在,,en,它会如何表现,,en,作为一个更猛烈的地震,,en,或更长的一个,,en,我想象地震,,en,在横截面中,,en,作为悬臂弹簧被按下,然后被释放,,en,然后弹簧能量海啸转移势能的形式,,en,作为增加的水位,,en,由于海啸散发出,,en,它仅仅是被转移的势能,,en

The Asian Tsunami two and a half years ago unleashed tremendous amount energy on the coastal regions around the Indian ocean. What do you think would’ve have happened to this energy if there had been no water to carry it away from the earthquake? 我的意思是, if the earthquake (of the same kind and magnitude) had taken place on land instead of the sea-bed as it did, presumably this energy would’ve been present. How would it have manifested? As a more violent earthquake? Or a longer one?

I picture the earthquake (in cross-section) as a cantilever spring being held down and then released. The spring then transfers the energy to the tsunami in the form of potential energy, as an increase in the water level. As the tsunami radiates out, it is only the potential energy that is transferred; 水不横向移动,,en,只有垂直,,en,因为它击中海岸,,en,潜在的能量被转移到海浪击打海岸动能,,en,水横向移动然后,,en,由于能量从震中传递幅度,,en,我猜测,如果有对转移的机制会有什么发生过,,en,有什么想法吗,,en,我张贴了这个问题,这是困扰着我,当我读到他们发现了银河系约,,en,十亿光年,,en,我这句话的理解是,,en,在距离,,en,十亿光年,,en,有一个星系,,en,十亿年前,,en,所以,我们可以看到现在从它的光,,en,这难道不意味着宇宙是至少,,en,十亿岁,,en,它必须采取有关星系,,en,十亿年才能达到它似乎是,,en, only vertically. As it hits the coast, the potential energy is transferred into the kinetic energy of the waves hitting the coast (water moving laterally then).

Given the magnitude of the energy transferred from the epicenter, I am speculating what would’ve happened if there was no mechanism for the transfer. Any thoughts?