タグ別アーカイブ: games that people play


In this last post in the rules of the game series, we look at the creative use of the rules in a couple of situations. Rules can be used to create productive and predictable conflicts. One such conflict is in law enforcement, where cops hate defense attorneys — if we are to believe Michael Connelly’s depiction of how things work at LAPD. It is not as if they are really working against each other, although it may look that way. Both of them are working toward implementing a set of rules that will lead to justice for all, while avoiding power concentration and corruption. The best way of doing it happens to be by creating a perpetual conflict, which also happens to be fodder for Connelly’s work.

Another conflict of this kind can be seen in a bank, between the risk taking arm (traders in the front office) and the risk controlling teams (market and credit risk managers in the middle office). The incessant strife between them, 実際には, ends up implementing the risk appetite of the bank as decided by the senior management. When the conflict is missing, problems can arise. For a trader, performance is quantified in terms of the profit (and to a lesser degree, its volatility) generated by him. This scheme seems to align the trader’s interests with those of the bank, thus generating a positive feedback loop. As any electrical engineer will tell you, positive feedback leads to instability, while negative feedback (conflict driven modes) leads to stable configurations. The positive feedback results in rogue traders engaging in huge unauthorized trades leading to enormous damages or actual collapses like the Bearings bank in 1995.

We can find other instances of reinforcing feedback generating explosive situations in upper management of large corporates. The high level managers, being board members in multiple corporate entities, keep supporting each other’s insane salary expectations, thus creating an unhealthy positive feedback. If the shareholders, 他方では, decided the salary packages, their own self-interest of minimizing expenses and increasing the dividend (and the implicit conflict) would have generated a more moderate equilibrium.

The rule of conflict is at work at much larger scales as well. In a democracy, political parties often assume conflicting world views and agendas. Their conflict, ratified through the electoral process, ends up reflecting the median popular view, which is the way it should be. It is when their conflicting views become so hopelessly polarized (as they seem to be in the US politics these days) that we need to worry. Even more of a worry would be when one side of the conflict disappears or gets so thoroughly beaten. In an earlier post, I lamented about just that kind of one-sidedness in the idealogical struggle between capitalism and socialism.

Conflicts are not limited to such large settings or to our corporate life and detective stories. The most common conflict is in the work-life balance that all of us struggle with. The issue is simple — we need to work to make a living, and work harder and longer to make a better living. In order to give the best to our loved ones, we put so much into our work that we end up sacrificing our time with the very loved ones we are supposedly working for. もちろん, there is a bit of hypocrisy when most workaholics choose work over life — they do it, not so much for their loved ones, but for a glorification, a justification or a validation of their existence. It is an unknown and unseen angst that is driving them. Getting the elusive work-live conflict right often necessitates an appreciation of that angst, and unconventional choices. 時には, in order to win, you have to break the rules of the game.

生活: 東対. ウェスト

In the last post we examined life from the perspective of evolutionary biology. Now let’s move on to philosophy. There is an important philosophical difference between the perspectives on life in the East and the West. These views form the backdrop to the rules of life, which shape everything from our familial and societal patterns to our hopes and prayers. How these rules (which depend on where you come from) do it is not merely interesting, but necessary to appreciate in today’s world of global interactions. In one of his lectures, Yale philosophy professor Shelly Kagan made a remark that the basic stance vis-a-vis 生活 (and death) in the West is that life is a good thing to have; it is a gift. Our job is to fill it with as much happiness, accomplishments and glory as possible.

The Eastern view is just the opposite – the first of the four noble truths of Buddhism is that life is suffering. ヒンドゥー教, which gave birth to Buddhism, says things like this world and the cycle of life are very difficult (Iha Samsare Bahu DustareBhaja Govindam, 例えば). Our job is to ensure that we don’t get too attached to the illusory things that life has to offer, including happiness. When we pray for our dead, we pray that they be relieved of the cycle of life and death. Deliverance is non-existence.

もちろん, I am vastly oversimplifying. (Let me rephrase that — this oversimplified version is all I know. I am very ignorant, but I plan to do something about it very soon.) Viewed in the light of these divergent stances against the conundrum of life, we see why westerners place such a premium on personal happiness and glory, while their eastern counterparts tend to be fatalistic and harp on the virtues of self sacrifice and lack of ambition (or its first cousin, 貪欲).

To an ambitious westerner, any chance at an incremental increase in personal happiness (through a divorce and remarriage, 例えば) is too good an opportunity to pass up. On the other side of the globe, to one brought up in the Hindu way of life, happiness is just another illusory manifestation not to be tempted by. Those caught in between these two sets of rules of life may find it all very confusing and ultimately frustrating. That too is a macro level pattern regimented by the micro level rules of the game.


ルールは地面にパターンを形成する方法のより複雑な例は、企業のゲームです. 通常のメタファーは、企業機械の執拗なホイールにコグとして従業員を描写することです, 他の人のパワープレーでまたは無力ポーン. しかし、我々は、独自の小さなパワープレーに従事し、独自のリソースを持つ現役選手としてそれらのすべてを考えることができます. そこで、彼らはオフィスの政治の完全な会社生活で終わる, 煙と鏡, 狭量と陰で中傷し、. 彼らは彼らの同僚を個人的にこれらの事を取ると、好きか嫌いときは, 彼らは自分自身に不正を行う, 私は思います. 彼らはすべてのこれらの機能は、彼らが会社のゲームをプレイする規則の最終結果であることを認識すべき. 私たちは現代の任意のワークスペースに表示オフィス政治がゲームのルールに期待されるトポロジです.

これらの有名なルールが何であるかを私が上でくどくど続ける? あなたはそれらをはるかに複雑であることが期待されるシンプルなチェスゲームのそれらのこと, あなたが変化する課題を持つ選手の数が多いことを考えると. すべての真の科学者があるべきようにしかし、私はシンプルさとオッカムの剃刀の大ファンだ (私はまだ一人の斜めと希望的観測アサーションものである, もちろん), と私は、企業のゲームのルールは、驚くほどシンプルであると考えて. 私の知る限り見ることができるように, ちょうど2つがあります — 1は、それがトップにバブルに次第に困難になるという点で、キャリアアップの機会がピラミッド形状であるということです. 他のルールは、すべてのレベルであることである, 報酬のポットがあります (ボーナスプールのような, 例えば) それは同僚の間で共有される必要がある. これらのルールから、, あなたは簡単に他の人がひどく行うときに1が良くないことがわかります. 陰で中傷は自然に、以下の.

このゲームでは完璧なプレーヤーであるためには, あなたは陰で中傷する以上のことをする必要が. あなたにも、あなたの優位性で正直なツー·ジョン信仰を開発する必要があります. 偽善は動作しません. 私は彼が幼稚園を出る前に、彼は、アセンブリレベルのプログラミングを行うことができていることを主張している同僚を持っている. 私は彼が、それ自体が嘘をついているとは思わない; 彼は正直に彼ができると考えている, 私の知る限り伝えることができるように. 今, 私のこの同僚はかなりスマートです. しかしながら, IITを卒業し、CERNで働いた後、, 私は、優れた知性と天才慣れ. そして、彼はそうではありません. しかし、それは問題ではありません; 彼自身の優位性の彼の不滅の信念は、現実のチェックのようなマイナーな障害物を乗り切るに彼を行っている. 私は彼の将来にストックオプションを参照してください。. 彼が後ろに誰かを刺した場合, 彼はguiltlesslyそれをしない, ほとんど無邪気. それはあなたが熱望する必要が妙技のそのレベルにある, あなたは、企業のゲームに秀でるしたい場合は.

現代の企業のオフィスのほぼすべての機能, 政治からプロモーションまで, とボーナスの陰で中傷, 我々はによってそれを再生する、ゲームの簡単なルールの結果である. (最初の文字の韻の弱い試みについては申し訳ありません。) このアイデアは、次の拡張, もちろん, 人生のゲームです. 私たちは皆、勝ちたい, しかし、最終的に, それは我々がすべて失うことになるゲームです, 人生のゲームはまた、死のゲームですので、.