标记档案: 爱因斯坦

为什么光的速度?

What is so special about light that its speed should figure in the basic structure of space and time and our reality? 这是一个已经唠叨许多科学家自从爱因斯坦发表论动体有关的电动力学问题 100 几年前.

为了了解光的特殊性在我们的空间和时间, 我们需要研究我们如何看待我们周围的世界和现实如何在我们的大脑中创建. 我们用我们的感官感知我们的世界. 感官信号,我们的感官收集,然后传递到我们的大脑. The brain creates a cognitive model, a representation of the sensory inputs, and presents it to our conscious awareness as reality. 我们的视觉现实是由空间很像我们的听觉世界是由声音.

正如声音是一个感性经验,而不是物理现实的基本属性, space also is an experience, or a cognitive representation of the visual inputs, not a fundamental aspect of “世界” 我们的感官正试图检测.

Space and time together form what physics considers the basis of reality. 我们可以理解在我们的现实的限制,唯一的办法就是通过研究我们的感官本身的局限性.

At a fundamental level, how do our senses work? Our sense of sight operates using light, and the fundamental interaction involved in sight falls in the electromagnetic (EM) category because light (or photon) is the intermediary of EM interactions. EM相互作用的排他性不限于视线我们的远程感; 所有的短距离感 (touch, taste, smell and hearing) are also EM in nature. To understand the limitations of our perception of space, we need not highlight the EM nature of all our senses. Space is, 大体上, the result of our sight sense. But it is worthwhile to keep in mind that we would have no sensing, and indeed no reality, in the absence of EM interactions.

Like our senses, all our technological extensions to our senses (such as radio telescopes, electron microscopes, 红移测量,甚至引力透镜效应) use EM interactions exclusively to measure our universe. 因此,, we cannot escape the basic constraints of our perception even when we use modern instruments. The Hubble telescope may see a billion light years farther than our naked eyes, but what it sees is still a billion years older than what our eyes see. 我们感知的现实, whether built upon direct sensory inputs or technologically enhanced, 是电磁颗粒和相互作用的子集仅. 它是电磁颗粒和相互作用的投影到我们的感官和认知空间, 一个可能是不完美的投影.

这种说法对电磁相互作用,我们认为现实中的排他性往往是遇到了一点怀疑, 主要是由于误解,认为我们可以直接感受到的重力. This confusion arises because our bodies are subject to gravity. There is a fine distinction between “being subject to” 和 “being able to sense” gravitational force.

这种差别是由一个简单的思想实验示: 想象一下,一个人的主体放置在对象面前的宇宙暗物质完全由. 有没有其他可见物质的任何位置的主体可以看到它. 鉴于暗物质施加引力的主题, 他是否能够感知它的存在? 他将朝着它拉, 但他怎么会知道,他是被拉到或者说,他正在? 他都不可能设计一些机械玩意儿探测暗物质物体的重力. 但随后他将重力感应的作用,对使用电磁相互作用的一些事. 例如, 他也许能看到他的不明原因的加速 (重力对他的身体影响, 这是EM事) 相对于参考的对象,如星. 但这里的传感部分 (看到明星) 涉及电磁相互作用.

它是不可能设计任何机械精巧检测重力是缺乏的EM物质. 重力感应再次在我们耳边测量重力对EM问题的影响. In the absence of EM interaction, it is impossible to sense gravity, or anything else for that matter.

电磁相互作用负责我们的感觉输入. 感官知觉导致了我们所说的现实,我们的大脑的代表性. 任何限制,在这条产业链会导致相应的限制,在我们的现实感. 从感官到实际链中的一个限制是光子的有限速度, which is the gauge boson of our senses. The finite speed of the sense modality influences and distorts our perception of motion, 空间和时间. Because these distortions are perceived as a part of our reality itself, the root cause of the distortion becomes a fundamental property of our reality. 这是怎样的光的速度变得如此重要的恒定在我们的空间时间. 光的神圣的尊重只是我们感知的现实.

如果我们相信不完善的看法,并尝试来形容我们感觉到在宇宙尺度, 我们最终的世界观,如大爆炸理论在现代宇宙学和一般和相对论的特殊理论. 这些理论都没有错, 而这本书的目的不是要证明他们是错的, 刚指出,他们是一个感知的现实的描述. 他们没有说明背后的感觉输入的身体的原因. 物理原因属于超出了我们的感觉是绝对的现实.

绝对的现实,我们的看法它之间的区别,可以进一步开发和应用,以一定的 具体天体物理宇宙现象. 当涉及到这种情况远远超出了我们的感官范围的物理, we really have to take into account the role that our perception and cognition play in seeing them. 正如我们所看到的宇宙只是创造出落在我们的视网膜上或在哈勃太空望远镜的光传感器的光子的认知模式. Because of the finite speed of the information carrier (namely photons), our perception is distorted in such a way as to give us the impression that space and time obey special relativity. They do, but space and time are not the absolute reality. 它们的仅一部分 虚幻宇宙 这是我们的看法是不可知的现实.

[这又是我那本书的编辑摘录, 虚幻宇宙.]

什么是太空?

这听起来像一个奇怪的问题. 我们都知道空间是什么, 这是在我们身边. 当我们打开我们的眼睛, 我们看到它. 如果眼见为实, 那么问题 “什么是空间?” 确实是一个奇怪的1.

说句公道话, 我们没有真正看到的空间. 我们只看到我们假定物体在空间. 宁, 我们定义空间,不管它是持有或包含的对象. 这是竞技场里的物体做他们的事, 我们的经验背景. 换句话说, 经验预先假定空间和时间, 并提供了基础背后的科学理论目前流行的解释的世界观.

虽然不是很明显, 这个定义 (或者假设或谅解) 空间配备了一个哲学的行李 — 即现实主义. 现实主义者的观点是占主导地位的Einstien的理论目前的了解,以及. 但爱因斯坦自己可能没有盲目地接受现实. 否则为什么他会说:

为了从现实的抓地力打破, 我们要切向接近问题. 做到这一点的一种方法是通过研究神经科学和视线认知基础, 它毕竟提供了有力的证据,以空间的真实性. 空间, 大体上, 与视觉体验相关. 另一种方法是研究其他感官体验相关性: 什么是声音?

当我们听到的东西, 我们听到的是什么, 自然, 声音. 我们经历了基调, 强度和时间变化,告诉我们很多关于谁说话, 什么破等. 但是,即使剥离后,所有的额外财富增加了我们的大脑的体验, 最基本的经验仍然是一个 “声音。” 我们都知道它是什么, 但我们不能在条件比这更基本的解释.

现在,让我们来看看负责审理的感官信号. 正如我们所知道, 这些是在由一个振动体使压缩和凹陷在周围的空气产生的空气压力波. 就像在一个池塘中的涟漪, 这些压力波传​​播的几乎所有方向. 他们拾起我们的耳朵. 通过巧妙的机制, 耳朵进行频谱分析和发送电信号, 这大致对应于波的频谱, 我们的大脑. 注意, 到目前为止, 我们有一个振动体, 聚束和空气分子扩散, 和的电信号,它包含有关空气分子的图案信息. 我们没有还音.

声音的经验是神奇的大脑进行. 它转换编码的空气压力波图案以色调的表示和声音的丰富度的电信号. 声音是不是一个振动体的固有性质或倒下的树, 这是我们的大脑选择代表振动或方式, 更精确, 编码该压力波的频谱的电信号.

没有有意义调用声音我们听觉的感官输入内部认知的表示? 如果你同意, 那么现实本身就是我们的感觉输入我们的内部表示. 这个概念其实是更深刻的,它第一次出现. 如果声音是代表, 所以异味. 那么,空间.

Figure
图: 插图的感觉输入大脑的代表性的过程. 气味是化学成分和浓度水平我们的鼻子的感官的表示. 声音是由一个振动物体所产生的空气压力波的映射. 在望, 我们表示是空间, 并可能时间. 然而, 我们不知道它是什么的代表性.

我们可以对其进行检查并充分理解的声音,因为一个明显的事实 — 我们有一个更强大的感, 即我们的视线. 视线使我们能够理解听觉的感官信号,并把它们比作我们的感官体验. 实际上, 视线,使我们能够做出一个模型描述是什么声音.

为什么我们不知道后面的空间物理原因? 毕竟, 我们所知道的气味的经验背后的原因, 声音, 等. 究其原因,我们无法看到超越视觉的现实是感官的层次, 最佳地示出使用示例. 让我们考虑一个小规模的爆炸, 像鞭炮去关闭. 当我们经历这次爆炸, 我们将会看到闪光灯, 听到报告, 闻到了燃烧的化学品和感觉热, 如果我们足够接近.

这些经验的感受性都归结到同一个物理事件 — 爆炸, 其中的物理很好理解. 现在, 让我们,如果我们能骗过感官到具有相同的经历来看看, 在不存在真正的爆炸. 热和气味是相当容易重现. 也可以使用所产生的声音的经验, 例如, 一个高端家庭影院系统. 我们如何重建爆炸的视线的经验? 家庭影院的体验是一个再现真实的东西差.

至少在原则上, 我们能想到的未来场景,如在星际旅行的holideck, 当视线的经验可以重现. 但是,在该点处的视线也重新, is there a difference between the real experience of the explosion and the holideck simulation? The blurring of the sense of reality when the sight experience is simulated indicates that sight is our most powerful sense, and we have no access to causes beyond our visual reality.

Visual perception is the basis of our sense of reality. All other senses provide corroborating or complementing perceptions to the visual reality.

[This post has borrowed quite a bit from my book.]

The Philosophy of Special Relativity — A Comparison between Indian and Western Interpretations

Abstract: The Western philosophical phenomenalism could be treated as a kind of philosophical basis of the special theory of relativity. The perceptual limitations of our senses hold the key to the understanding of relativistic postulates. The specialness of the speed of light in our phenomenal space and time is more a matter of our perceptual apparatus, than an input postulate to the special theory of relativity. The author believes that the parallels among the phenomenological, Western spiritual and the Eastern Advaita interpretations of special relativity point to an exciting possibility of unifying the Eastern and Western schools of thought to some extent.

– Editor

Key Words: Relativity, Speed of Light, 现象学, 不二.

Introduction

The philosophical basis of the special theory of relativity can be interpreted in terms of Western phenomenalism, which views space and time are considered perceptual and cognitive constructs created out our sensory inputs. From this perspective, the special status of light and its speed can be understood through a phenomenological study of our senses and the perceptual limitations to our phenomenal notions of space and time. A similar view is echoed in the BrahmanMaya 区别 不二. If we think of space and time as part of Maya, we can partly understand the importance that the speed of light in our reality, as enshrined in special relativity. The central role of light in our reality is highlighted in the Bible as well. These remarkable parallels among the phenomenological, Western spiritual and the 不二 interpretations of special relativity point to an exciting possibility of unifying the Eastern and Western schools of thought to a certain degree.

Special Relativity

Einstein unveiled his special theory of relativity2 a little over a century ago. In his theory, he showed that space and time were not absolute entities. They are entities relative to an observer. An observer’s space and time are related to those of another through the speed of light. 例如, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. In a moving system, time flows slower and space contracts in accordance with equations involving the speed of light. Light, 因此, enjoys a special status in our space and time. This specialness of light in our reality is indelibly enshrined in the special theory of relativity.

Where does this specialness come from? What is so special about light that its speed should figure in the basic structure of space and time and our reality? This question has remained unanswered for over 100 年. It also brings in the metaphysical aspects of space and time, which form the basis of what we perceive as reality.

Noumenal-Phenomenal and BrahmanMaya Distinctions

不二3 view of reality, what we perceive is merely an illusion-Maya. 不二 explicitly renounces the notion that the perceived reality is external or indeed real. It teaches us that the phenomenal universe, our conscious awareness of it, and our bodily being are all an illusion or Maya. They are not the true, absolute reality. The absolute reality existing in itself, independent of us and our experiences, 是 Brahman.

A similar view of reality is echoed in phenomenalism,4 which holds that space and time are not objective realities. 他们只是我们的感知中. 在此视图中, all the phenomena that happen in space and time are merely bundles of our perception. Space and time are also cognitive constructs arising from perception. 因此,, the reasons behind all the physical properties that we ascribe to space and time have to be sought in the sensory processes that create our perception, whether we approach the issue from the 不二 or phenomenalism perspective.

This analysis of the importance of light in our reality naturally brings in the metaphysical aspects of space and time. In Kant’s view,5 space and time are pure forms of intuition. They do not arise from our experience because our experiences presuppose the existence of space and time. 因此,, we can represent space and time in the absence of objects, but we cannot represent objects in the absence of space and time.

Kant’s middle-ground has the advantage of reconciling the views of Newton and Leibniz. It can agree with Newton’s view6 that space is absolute and real for phenomenal objects open to scientific investigation. It can also sit well with Leibniz’s view7 that space is not absolute and has an existence only in relation to objects, by highlighting their relational nature, not among objects in themselves (noumenal objects), but between observers and objects.

We can roughly equate the noumenal objects to forms in Brahman and our perception of them to Maya. In this article, we will use the terms “noumenal reality,” “absolute reality,” 或 “physical reality” interchangeably to describe the collection of noumenal objects, their properties and interactions, which are thought to be the underlying causes of our perception. 同样, we will “phenomenal reality,” “perceived or sensed reality,” 和 “perceptual reality” to signify our reality as we perceive it.

As with Brahman causing Maya, we assume that the phenomenal notions of space and time arise from noumenal causes8 through our sensory and cognitive processes. Note that this causality assumption is ad-hoc; there is no a priori reason for phenomenal reality to have a cause, nor is causation a necessary feature of the noumenal reality. Despite this difficulty, we proceed from a naive model for the noumenal reality and show that, through the process of perception, we can “派生” a phenomenal reality that obeys the special theory of relativity.

This attempt to go from the phenomena (空间和时间) to the essence of what we experience (a model for noumenal reality) is roughly in line with Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology.9 The deviation is that we are more interested in the manifestations of the model in the phenomenal reality itself rather than the validity of the model for the essence. Through this study, we show that the specialness of the speed of light in our phenomenal space and time is a consequence of our perceptual apparatus. It doesn’t have to be an input postulate to the special theory of relativity.

Perception and Phenomenal Reality

The properties we ascribe to space and time (such as the specialness of the speed of light) can only be a part of our perceived reality or Maya, 在 不二, not of the underlying absolute reality, Brahman. If we think of space and time as aspects of our perceived reality arising from an unknowable Brahman through our sensory and cognitive processes, we can find an explanation for the special distinction of the speed of light in the process and mechanism of our sensing. Our thesis is that the reason for the specialness of light in our phenomenal notions of space and time is hidden in the process of our perception.

We, 因此, study how the noumenal objects around us generate our sensory signals, and how we construct our phenomenal reality out of these signals in our brains. The first part is already troublesome because noumenal objects, 顾名思义, have no properties or interactions that we can study or understand.

These features of the noumenal reality are identical to the notion of Brahman不二, which highlights that the ultimate truth is Brahman, the one beyond time, space and causation. Brahman is the material cause of the universe, but it transcends the cosmos. It transcends time; it exists in the past, present and future. It transcends space; it has no beginning, middle and end. It even transcends causality. For that reason, Brahman is incomprehensible to the human mind. The way it manifests to us is through our sensory and cognitive processes. This manifestation is Maya, the illusion, 哪, in the phenomenalistic parlance, corresponds to the phenomenal reality.

For our purpose in this article, we describe our sensory and cognitive process and the creation of the phenomenal reality or Maya10 as follows. It starts with the noumenal objects (or forms in Brahman), which generate the inputs to our senses. Our senses then process the signals and relay the processed electric data corresponding to them to our brain. The brain creates a cognitive model, a representation of the sensory inputs, and presents it to our conscious awareness as reality, which is our phenomenal world or Maya.

This description of how the phenomenal reality created ushers in a tricky philosophical question. Who or what creates the phenomenal reality and where? It is not created by our senses, brain and mind because these are all objects or forms in the phenomenal reality. The phenomenal reality cannot create itself. It cannot be that the noumenal reality creates the phenomenal reality because, in that case, it would be inaccurate to assert the cognitive inaccessibility to the noumenal world.

This philosophical trouble is identical in 不二 以及. Our senses, brain and mind cannot create Maya, because they are all part of Maya. 如果 Brahman created Maya, it would have to be just as real. This philosophical quandary can be circumvented in the following way. We assume that all events and objects in Maya have a cause or form in Brahman or in the noumenal world. 因此,, we postulate that our senses, mind and body all have some (unknown) forms in Brahman (or in the noumenal world), and these forms create Maya in our conscious awareness, ignoring the fact that our consciousness itself is an illusory manifestation in the phenomenal world. This inconsistency is not material to our exploration into the nature of space and time because we are seeking the reason for the specialness of light in the sensory process rather than at the level of consciousness.

Space and time together form what physics considers the basis of reality. Space makes up our visual reality precisely as sounds make up our auditory world. Just as sounds are a perceptual experience rather than a fundamental property of physical reality, space also is an experience, or a cognitive representation of the visual inputs, not a fundamental aspect of Brahman or the noumenal reality. The phenomenal reality thus created is Maya. 该 Maya events are an imperfect or distorted representation of the corresponding Brahman events. 自 Brahman is a superset of Maya (或, equivalently, our senses are potentially incapable of sensing all aspects of the noumenal reality), not all objects and events in Brahman create a projection in Maya. Our perception (或 Maya) is thus limited because of the sense modality and its speed, which form the focus of our investigation in this article.

In summary, it can be argued that the noumenal-phenomenal distinction in phenomenalism is an exact parallel to the BrahmanMaya 区别 不二 if we think of our perceived reality (或 Maya) as arising from sensory and cognitive processes.

Sensing Space and Time, and the Role of Light

The phenomenal notions of space and time together form what physics considers the basis of reality. Since we take the position that space and time are the end results of our sensory perception, we can understand some of the limitations in our Maya by studying the limitations in our senses themselves.

At a fundamental level, how do our senses work? Our sense of sight operates using light, and the fundamental interaction involved in sight falls in the electromagnetic (EM) category because light (or photon) is the intermediary of EM interactions.11

The exclusivity of EM interaction is not limited to our long-range sense of sight; all the short-range senses (touch, taste, smell and hearing) are also EM in nature. In physics, the fundamental interactions are modeled as fields with gauge bosons.12 In quantum electrodynamics13 (the quantum field theory of EM interactions), photon (or light) is the gauge boson mediating EM interactions. Electromagnetic interactions are responsible for all our sensory inputs. To understand the limitations of our perception of space, we need not highlight the EM nature of all our senses. Space is, 大体上, the result of our sight sense. But it is worthwhile to keep in mind that we would have no sensing, and indeed no reality, in the absence of EM interactions.

Like our senses, all our technological extensions to our senses (such as radio telescopes, electron microscopes, red shift measurements and even gravitational lensing) use EM interactions exclusively to measure our universe. 因此,, we cannot escape the basic constraints of our perception even when we use modern instruments. The Hubble telescope may see a billion light years farther than our naked eyes, but what it sees is still a billion years older than what our eyes see. Our phenomenal reality, whether built upon direct sensory inputs or technologically enhanced, is made up of a subset of EM particles and interactions only. What we perceive as reality is a subset of forms and events in the noumenal world corresponding to EM interactions, filtered through our sensory and cognitive processes. 在 不二 parlance, Maya can be thought of as a projection of Brahman through EM interactions into our sensory and cognitive space, quite probably an imperfect projection.

The exclusivity of EM interactions in our perceived reality is not always appreciated, mainly because of a misconception that we can sense gravity directly. This confusion arises because our bodies are subject to gravity. There is a fine distinction between “being subject to” 和 “being able to sense” gravitational force. The gravity sensing in our ears measures the effect of gravity on EM matter. In the absence of EM interaction, it is impossible to sense gravity, or anything else for that matter.

This assertion that there is no sensing in the absence of EM interactions brings us to the next philosophical hurdle. One can always argue that, in the absence of EM interaction, there is no matter to sense. This argument is tantamount to insisting that the noumenal world consists of only those forms and events that give rise to EM interaction in our phenomenal perception. 换句话说, it is the same as insisting that Brahman is made up of only EM interactions. What is lacking in the absence of EM interaction is only our phenomenal reality. 在 不二 notion, in the absence of sensing, Maya does not exist. The absolute reality or Brahman, 然而,, is independent of our sensing it. 同样, we see that the Eastern and Western views on reality we explored in this article are remarkably similar.

The Speed of Light

Knowing that our space-time is a representation of the light waves our eyes receive, we can immediately see that light is indeed special in our reality. In our view, sensory perception leads to our brain’s representation that we call reality, 或 Maya. Any limitation in this chain of sensing leads to a corresponding limitation in our phenomenal reality.

One limitation in the chain from senses to perception is the finite speed of photon, which is the gauge boson of our senses. The finite speed of the sense modality influences and distorts our perception of motion, 空间和时间. Because these distortions are perceived as a part of our reality itself, the root cause of the distortion becomes a fundamental property of our reality. This is how the speed of light becomes such an important constant in our space-time.

The importance of the speed of light, 然而,, is respected only in our phenomenal Maya. Other modes of perception have other speeds the figure as the fundamental constant in their space-like perception. The reality sensed through echolocation, 例如, has the speed of sound as a fundamental property. 事实上, it is fairly simple to establish14 that echolocation results in a perception of motion that obeys something very similar to special relativity with the speed of light replaced with that of sound.

Theories beyond Sensory Limits

The basis of physics is the world view called scientific realism, which is not only at the core of sciences but is our natural way of looking at the world as well. Scientific realism, and hence physics, assume an independently existing external world, whose structures are knowable through scientific investigations. To the extent observations are based on perception, the philosophical stance of scientific realism, as it is practiced today, can be thought of as a trust in our perceived reality, and as an assumption that it is this reality that needs to be explored in science.

Physics extends its reach beyond perception or Maya through the rational element of pure theory. Most of physics works in this “extended” intellectual reality, with concepts such as fields, forces, light rays, 原子, 颗粒, 等等。, the existence of which is insisted upon through the metaphysical commitment implied in scientific realism. 然而, it does not claim that the rational extensions are the noumenal causes or Brahman giving raise to our phenomenal perception.

Scientific realism has helped physics tremendously, with all its classical theories. 然而, scientific realism and the trust in our perception of reality should apply only within the useful ranges of our senses. Within the ranges of our sensory perceptions, we have fairly intuitive physics. An example of an intuitive picture is Newtonian mechanics that describe “正常” objects moving around at “正常” speeds.

When we get closer to the edges of our sensory modalities, we have to modify our sciences to describe the reality as we sense it. These modifications lead to different, and possibly incompatible, theories. When we ascribe the natural limitations of our senses and the consequent limitations of our perception (and therefore observations) to the fundamental nature of reality itself, we end up introducing complications in our physical laws. Depending on which limitations we are incorporating into the theory (e.g., small size, large speeds etc.), we may end up with theories that are incompatible with each other.

Our argument is that some of these complications (和, 希望, incompatibilities) can be avoided if we address the sensory limitations directly. 例如, we can study the consequence of the fact that our senses operate at the speed of light as follows. We can model Brahman (the noumenal reality) as obeying classical mechanics, and work out what kind of Maya (phenomenal reality) we will experience through the chain of sensing.

The modeling of the noumenal world (as obeying classical mechanics), 当然, has shaky philosophical foundations. But the phenomenal reality predicted from this model is remarkably close to the reality we do perceive. Starting from this simple model, it can be easily shown our perception of motion at high speeds obeys special relativity.

The effects due to the finite speed of light are well known in physics. 我们知道,, 例如, that what we see happening in distant stars and galaxies now actually took place quite awhile ago. A more “advanced” effect due to the light travel time15 is the way we perceive motion at high speeds, which is the basis of special relativity. 事实上, many astrophysical phenomena can be understood16 in terms of light travel time effects. Because our sense modality is based on light, our sensed picture of motion has the speed of light appearing naturally in the equations describing it. So the importance of the speed of light in our space-time (as described in special relativity) is due to the fact that our reality is Maya created based on light inputs.

Conclusion

Almost all branches of philosophy grapple with this distinction between the phenomenal and the absolute realities to some extent. 不二 Vedanta holds the unrealness of the phenomenal reality as the basis of their world view. In this article, we showed that the views in phenomenalism can be thought of as a restatement of the 不二 postulates.

When such a spiritual or philosophical insight makes its way into science, great advances in our understanding can be expected. This convergence of philosophy (or even spirituality) and science is beginning to take place, most notably in neuroscience, which views reality as a creation of our brain, echoing the notion of Maya.

Science gives a false impression that we can get arbitrarily close to the underlying physical causes through the process of scientific investigation and rational theorization. An example of such theorization can be found in our sensation of hearing. The experience or the sensation of sound is an incredibly distant representation of the physical cause–namely air pressure waves. We are aware of the physical cause because we have a more powerful sight sense. So it would seem that we can indeed go from Maya (声音) to the underlying causes (air pressure waves).

然而, it is a fallacy to assume that the physical cause (the air pressure waves) 是 Brahman. Air pressure waves are still a part of our perception; they are part of the intellectual picture we have come to accept. This intellectual picture is an extension of our visual reality, based on our trust in the visual reality. It is still a part of Maya.

The new extension of reality proposed in this article, again an intellectual extension, is an educated guess. We guess a model for the absolute reality, 或 Brahman, and predict what the consequent perceived reality should be, working forward through the chain of sensing and creating Maya. If the predicted perception is a good match with the Maya we do experience, then the guesswork for Brahman is taken to be a fairly accurate working model. The consistency between the predicted perception and what we do perceive is the only validation of the model for the nature of the absolute reality. 此外, the guess is only one plausible model for the absolute reality; there may be different such “solutions” to the absolute reality all of which end up giving us our perceived reality.

It is a mistake to think of the qualities of our subjective experience of sound as the properties of the underlying physical process. In an exact parallel, it is a fallacy to assume that the subjective experience of space and time is the fundamental property of the world we live in. The space-time continuum, as we see it or feel it, is only a partial and incomplete representation of the unknowable Brahman. If we are willing to model the unknowable Brahman as obeying classical mechanics, we can indeed derive the properties of our perceived reality (such as time dilation, length contraction, light speed ceiling and so on in special relativity). By proposing this model for the noumenal world, we are not suggesting that all the effects of special relativity are mere perceptual artifacts. We are merely reiterating a known fact that space and time themselves cannot be anything but perceptual constructs. Thus their properties are manifestations of the process of perception.

When we consider processes close to or beyond our sensor limits, the manifestations of our perceptual and cognitive constraints become significant. 因此,, when it comes to the physics that describes such processes, we really have to take into account the role that our perception and cognition play in sensing them. The universe as we see it is only a cognitive model created out of the photons falling on our retina or on the photosensors of the Hubble telescope. Because of the finite speed of the information carrier (namely light), our perception is distorted in such a way as to give us the impression that space and time obey special relativity. They do, but space and time are only a part of our perception of an unknowable reality—a perception limited by the speed of light.

The central role of light in creating our reality or universe is at the heart of western spiritual philosophy as well. 宇宙缺乏光线的不只是您已经关掉了灯的世界. 这的确是一个宇宙缺乏自身, 一个不存在的宇宙. It is in this context that we have to understand the wisdom behind the notion that “该地是, and void'” 直到神使光线是, 说 “要有光。” Quran also says, “Allah is the light of the heavens.” The role of light in taking us from the void (虚无) to a reality was understood for a long, 很久. Is it possible that the ancient saints and prophets knew things that we are only now beginning to uncover with all our advances in knowledge? Whether we use old Eastern 不二 views or their Western counterparts, we can interpret the philosophical stance behind special relativity as hidden in the distinction between our phenomenal reality and its unknowable physical causes.

参考文献

  1. Dr. Manoj Thulasidas graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology (个人所得税), 马德拉斯, 在 1987. He studied fundamental particles and interactions at the CLEO collaboration at Cornell University during 1990-1992. After receiving his PhD in 1993, he moved to Marseilles, France and continued his research with the ALEPH collaboration at CERN, 日内瓦. During his ten-year career as a research scientist in the field of High energy physics, 他与人合着过 200 出版物.
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爱因斯坦对上帝和骰子

虽然爱因斯坦最出名的是相对论的他的理论, 他也是量子力学的出现,背后的主要驱动力 (QM). 他在光生伏打效应铺平了道路前期工作为QM未来发展. 他获得了诺贝尔文学奖, 不是相对论的理论, 但对于这个早期工作.

然后,它应该作为一个惊喜给我们,爱因斯坦并没有完全相信QM. 他度过了他职业生涯的后期试图装置思想实验,将证明,QM是不一致的他认为是自然规律. 为什么爱因斯坦不能接受QM? 我们永远不会知道肯定, 我的猜测是可能不如别人的.

爱因斯坦的麻烦QM总结在这个名言.

这实在是难以调和的观念 (或至少​​一些解释) QM用一个词鉴于其神拥有的一切控制. 在QM, 观测概率的性质. 也就是说, 如果我们以某种方式设法送两个电子 (在相同的状态) 上下一致的光束,一段时间后,观察他们, 我们可能会得到两个不同的观测性能.

我们可以解释这个缺陷观察是我们无法建立相同的初始状态, 或缺乏精度我们的测量. 这种解释引起所谓的隐变量的理论 — 认为是无效的,适用于各种原因. 解释目前流行的是,不确定性是自然界的固有属性 — 所谓哥本哈根解释.

在哥本哈根图片, 颗粒位置观察,只有当. 在其他时间, 他们应该被认为是一种为分布在空间. 在双缝用电子干扰实验, 例如, 我们不应该要求一个特定的电子是否发生在缝或其他. 只要有干扰, 种是需要双方.

在这种解释令人不安的事情爱因斯坦将是连上帝也无法使电子采取一个切口或其他 (不干扰的干涉图案, 就是说). 如果上帝不能将一个微小的电子在那里他想, 他是如何去控制整个宇宙?