And the Wind Whispered

[This post is my translation of an excellent short story by one of the most gifted storytellers of our time, O.V.Vijayan. The translation from Malayalam is a feeble effort, because such distant translations are not merely between languages, but cultures. The untranslatable expressions are marked with asterisks. Enjoy!]

Reached Kanjikad from Palghat by Coimbatore street. From there on, it was unpaved dirt road to the mountains. Even the rough taxi Jeep found that hard to take. This was Theyunni’s second trip here in the last ten years and he had no complaints about the roughness now.

Ditch ahead”, Driver said, glancing at the dirt road in front.

If you want to stop here, it’s okay”, Theyunni offered, “I can walk.

It’s about two miles from here. Accustomed as he was to the comfort of limousine rides between airports and star hotels, the prospect of the hard hike did not discourage Theyunni.

“罗. We’ll go slow, sit tight.

Okay.

The Jeep carefully negotiated the winding mountain road. Theyunni glanced at the wild valley as if for the first time. The sunshine cooled by the hillside, the east winds tunnelled through the mountain passes and roaring towards Palghat

The trees are all gone, aren’t they, Driver?”, Theyunni observed.

All downed. Was forests here till about five years ago. Elephants used to come down.

是的, last time when he was here, there were huge trees on either side. Trees he didn’t know the names of. There were crickets all around carrying on with their shrill orchestra. Theyunni recalled that journey. He was coming back to Bombay after a European trip and his wife was at the airport. 她说,, “There is a letter from home, looks like *Brother’s handwriting.

Wonder what is happening. Didn’t you open it, Phoebe?”

You know I don’t open your letters.

When the car was moving towards Juhu, Theyunni stole a glance at Phoebe’s face behind the wheel. Like a flawless marble sculpture with golden hair dancing in the wind. It was against her culture to open her husband’s letters. There were many things in her culture that attracted himher confident courage in kissing him in that garden few years ago, proclaiming, “I love you”. If the relationship were to turn sour in the years to come, the honesty and integrity that would make her say, “I do not love you any more, we have to get divorced”. These were the challenges that inspired him. He remembered the journey home to tell *Father that he was in love with Phoebe, his fellow-student at Stanford. Father did not say anything against it, just smiled his sweet, thoughtful smile. It was *Mother — “We had Devaki’s horoscope looked at…”

Devaki was a distant relative. The daughter of some in-land farmer. Hiding his contempt for horoscopes, Theyunni comforted Mother, “That is not much, Mother. We didn’t give our word.

Nobody said anything for a while. Then Mother said, “Isn’t understanding as big as word? It’s like Devaki has married you in her heart.

It’s the boy’s decision, Madhavi,” Father said, “Why do you want to say this and that?”

Mother withdrew herself, “I didn’t say anything…”

Don’t worry about Mother’s complaints, Kutta. 所以, do you like this Phoebe?”

Theyunni was a little embarrassed, “Yes.

Will an American girl like to live in this old family house of ours, Kutta?”, Mother inquired.

Why wouldn’t she?”

Father said, “It’s not as though they are going to come live here, 它是?”

So Father and Son have decided that as well,” Mother said, “that they don’t want to live here?”

Wherever we live, we’ll come here first, Mother.

Theyunni saw Mother’s eyes well up. After blessing Phoebe and wishing Devaki well in her life, Mother said, “I won’t ask you to change your mind. 但, will you look after Father, Kutta?”

Of course.

You remember how he used to be? His body is getting old…”

Father intervened again with his smile, “Madhavi, why do you say such things and make him unhappy? Don’t pay any attention to her, Kutta.

Even during the novelty of his love, Theyunni could feel *Devaki’s true meaning in his *rustic heartthe farmer bride who would sweep the floor and light the evening lamp. Mother said, “There was only one thing on my mindyour sister-in-law is not able-bodied. If it had been Devaki, there was a hope that she would look after your father in his old age…”

Theyunni didn’t say anything then. Even in the later years, he couldn’t say anything about that. Phoebe, who never opened her husband’s letters, drove skillfully through the streets of Juhu. When Father fell sick years after the marriage, Phoebe advised, “Your little town is actually a village. Why don’t we take him to a good hospital in a city? We can easily afford that.

What Father needed was nearness and touch to die peacefully. Theyunni came home alone with those and saw him off. Mother also died in the old family house. Phoebe was back at Stanford then. She sent a formal condolence telegram. *Devaki‘s meaning again filled his mind.

In Juhu, Theyunni read Brother’s letter. “I’m not doing too well, Kutta. Just to let you know. I won’t ask you to take time off your busy schedule and come by these forests. Just think of me, same effect as seeing. Didn’t even let Sreekumar know. I was worried that he might get anxious and take a tripnot easy to come here from Cambridge, 它是? If only your sister-in-law had been aliveWeaknesses of an old heart…”

The Jeep continued it’s laborious journey negotiating an occasional ditch and gutter.

Sorry about the trouble, Driver,” Theyunni tried to comfort the driver.

“罗, just doing my job.

Must be another mile from here. It was after his wife’s death that Brother decided to resign from service and move to the high lands. Theyunni vehemently opposed that decision. “Why are you moving to this god-forsaken land in Palghat among leopards and wild boars? 此外, you could be in service for another 10 年. Even after retiring, you know that a nuclear physicist can do so many things…”

Brother’s reply came, “There are debts that one owesto one’s country, one’s community, one’s family. I feel that I have repaid my dues to the best of my ability. There are some other obligations that I have to take care of. That’s is why I’m seeking refuge in these valleys.

Brother never mentioned what those obligations were. Theyunni didn’t inquire either.

The soft-spoken Brother took a decision only after much reasoning; it was not easy to make him go back on them. 后来, Brother wrote about his camp-site: about four miles off the road, there were fertile lands lying just outside the woods. Brother built a house there, among coconut palms, vegetables, mango treesDirt walls, wooden ceiling and roofs of clay tiles. It was at some distance from anywhere. 然而, there was a farmer, Ponnuswami, living in a hut nearby. Brother could ask Ponnuswami for help if needed. Apart from that, he was quite alone in that valley. Theyunni could not figure out the meaning of that penance and forgot about it. Years went by. But when Phoebe handed over that unopened letter, he suddenly felt that he should go there in a hurry.

“好, Phoebe, I’ll go and see what’s going on.

What is the name of that place? Kanjikad, isn’t it?”

Yes.

Brother had invited me to go and see the mountains.

“是的, I remember.

Must be a perfect place for get-away vacation. But it’s dangerous to get sick there. Why don’t you bring him here? We could have him treated at Jeslock or something.

Phoebe was repeating her suggestion on treatments. Theyunni remembered the last time the suggestion was offered and it made him uneasy.

We can’t get inside his mind, Phoebe. I’ll go there and see.

That was how Theyunni came here for the first time, ten years ago. Not only was he anxious about Brother’s health and solitary life, he also wanted to give Brother a piece of his mind about the untimely penance. When he took a taxi from Coimbatore airport to go to Kanjikad, his mind was filled with impatience and hard feelings towards Brother. The driver got discouraged by the sight of ditches and gutters in the dirt road. It didn’t take too much to provoke Theyunni.

I could break the axile if I drove up this way,” complained the driver who was Tamil.

How much does this stupid car of yours cost?”

“Sorry Sir, didn’t mean to…”

If your car breaks, let it break. I’ll give you what it costs. Drive.

When he got off the car, Theyunni saw Brother taking a walk in the fieldlooking bright and healthy.

Why did you come all this way, Kutta?”, Brother commented on the advisability of the trip.

You can say that. Living in the forests, writing letters about getting sick, how could I ignore it?”

Come in.Brother took him inside the house.

Theyunni looked around and found everything unsatisfactory. “Why do you punish yourself like this?”

Do I look as though this is punishment?”

Nobody said anything for a while. Then Theyunni inquired, “Who treated you while you were ill?”

Teat?! Nobody!”

What am I supposed to say about that?”

Brother smiled, “You don’t get it, 你呢, Kutta?”

What do you do for food?”

I have asked Ponnuswami’s wife to show up. To cook something for you. Me, this is all I eat.

He pointed to the husks of two young coconuts in the basket. “That was breakfast. Two more for dinner.

That is you diet?!”

Not just diet, medicine as well!”

When it got dark, Theyunni wanted to know, “Brother, what if some thieves show up?”

Brother laughed heartily, “Four white *mundu, four cotton shawls, two towels and some clay pots. That’s all this house holds. The thief is quite peaceful by nature, it’s our avarice that makes him do this and that!”

After dinner, they laid down to sleep — on the floor, on sleeping mats. For Theyunni, it was the first time in a long while without the air conditioner. The winds roared outside the house. Through the mountain passes, like the loud waves in an uptide.

Kutta

“是的, Brother?”

You hear that?”

The winds, 右边?”

“是的, but to you hear them?”

“是的, 我做的. Why do you ask?”

Brother was silent for a while in the darkness. Then he said, “别, you don’t hear them.

It was with the same dissatisfaction at Brother’s life in the wilderness that Theyunni went back to Bombay. Brother said, seeing him off, “It was a mistake, Kutta. A weakness. Felt like writing to you when I was ill; I won’t bother you like this again. There aren’t any illnesses that these valleys can’t cure. And if there are, do humans have medicines for them?”

现在, it was ten years after those words that Theyunni was coming back. Phoebe was not with him any more. She showed her natural honesty and told him that the love between them had dried out. Theyunni did not fly from Bombay. He took the train to Palghat along with numerous other people. Like in his childhood, in second class. Two day journey. Hills and woods and rivers and villages slowly went by in the window as the train ambled towards Palghat. The old family house was no longer there. So he rested in a hotel and set out for Kanjikad the next morning. His gruffiness during the last journey ten years ago had disappeared now. Theyunni felt that his peacefulness was spreading to the fellow passengers and even the landscapes.

The Jeep driver also was friendliness personified.

Hard trip, isn’t it, Driver?”

“罗, we are quite used to these. A little worried about your trouble, that is all.

Brother’s fences and steps appeared at a distance.

Over there, Driver.

Isolated house, isn’t it, Sir?”

Yes.

Ponnuswami was waiting by the house. He stepped down to welcome Theyunni. They looked at each other; Ponnuswami wiped his tears.

He had asked me not to telegram, that is why I wrote a letter instead.Ponnuswami said, “I am sorry.

Not at all, you were respecting Brother’s wishes. I understand.

Ponnuswami walked over to the backyard. There was a small plot where a Thulasi plant was beginning to take root. Ash remnants of the pyre around it.

This is it,” Ponnuswami said. “The bones were dropped in the Peroor river. If there are some other rituals you want to do… 但,…”

“是的, Ponnuswami?”

He said that no rituals were necessary. That he had uprooted the rituals. I am not educated, just thought that he was talking about some sacred state.

That must be what he meant.

Is Sreekumar coming up?”

I had telephoned him from Bombay. He is not coming. He had told me one thingthat this land and house are for you.

Ponnuswami had gone beyond such earthly things. “He also had told me the same thing; I didn’t want to tell you. 但, I don’t need any of this. You or Sreekumar could sell these…”

Brother’s wishes, Ponnuswami. We must respect them.

“好, if you insist.

How many children do you have?”

Four.

“好, this will be a good place for them to grow up in.

Ponnuswami bowed once again, “If you ever want to come back and live here, my family and I will get out of here for you.

That won’t be necessary, Ponnuswami.

I don’t deserve to live here, Theyunni said to himself. They got back into the house.

You take rest. I will get you a young coconut from the fields.

The driver is waiting in the Jeep outside. Ask him to come inside and have something to drink.

When Ponnuswami brought the young coconuts, Theyunni said, “You can go home now, if you like. I’m fine.

Ponnuswami left. Theyunni said to the driver. “Do you think you can stay here overnight?”

The driver expressed his disagreement through silence.

Didn’t plan that way when we set out,” Theyunni said. “This is Brother’s house. I came here because he died, couldn’t get here before.

The driver turned attentive. Theyunni continued, “Feel like sleeping here for a night.

The driver’s disagreement melted away silently. “I can stay.

I can pay you whatever you want for staying.

That won’t be necessary.

Time turned red and went down on the hilltops. Theyunni went inside and went through Brother’s wooden box. Three white mundu’s, laundered, three cotton shawls and two towels. Theyunni’s sadness dripped into them. When he went to bed, he was not sad any more, a kind of gratified grief. A fulfillment of love and traditions. He slept with the childhood dreams of fairy tales. Late in the night, he woke up. He listened to the music of the winds. After this night, it would be the trip back to the city. Theyunni could feel Brother’s kindness in the winds. The winds muttered the unknown *Manthras that marked the end of that kindness and life, some *distant baby voicesA night full of sacred whispers, this was the *justification of lifetime.

Theyunni listened to the whispers and slept, awaiting the morning.

The Story So Far …

In the early sixties, Santa Kumari Amma decided to move to the High Ranges. She had recently started working with KSEB which was building a hydro-electric project there.The place was generically called the High Ranges, even though the ranges weren’t all that high. People told her that the rough and tough High Ranges were no place for a country girl like her, but she wanted to go anyways, prompted mainly by the fact that there was some project allowance involved and she could use any little bit that came her way. Her family was quite poor. She came from a small village called Murani (near a larger village called Mallappalli.)

Around the same time B. Thulasidas (better known as Appu) also came to the High Ranges. His familty wasn’t all that poor and he didn’t really need the extra money. But he thought, hey rowdy place anyway, what the heck? 好, to make a long story short, they fell in love and decided to get married. This was some time in September 1962. A year later Sandya was born in Nov 63. And a little over another year and I came to be! (This whole stroy, 顺便说说, is taking place in the state of Kerala印度. 好, that sentence was added just to put the links there, just in case you are interested.) There is a gorgeous hill resort called 蒙纳 (meaning three rivers) where my parents were employed at that time and that’s where I was born.

 [casual picture] Just before 1970, 他们 (and me, which makes it we I guess) moved to Trivandrum, the capital city of Kerala. I lived in Trivandrum till I was 17. Lots of things happened in those years, but since this post is still (and always will be) work in progress, I can’t tell you all about it now.

在 1983, I moved to Madras, to do my BTech in Electronics and Communication at 个人所得税, 马德拉斯. (They call the IITs the MIT of India, only much harder to get in. In my batch, there were about 75,000 students competing for about 2000 places. I was ranked 63 among them. I’m quite smart academically, you see.) And as you can imagine, lots of things happened in those four years as well. But despite all that, I graduated in August 1987 and got my BTech degree.

在 1987, after finishing my BTech, I did what most IITians are supposed to do. I moved to the states. Upstate New York was my destination. I joined the Physics Department雪城大学 to do my PhD in High Energy Physics. And boy, did a lot of things happen during those 6 年! Half of those 6 years were spent at Cornell University in Ithaca.

That was in Aug. 1987. Then in 1993 七, the prestigious French national research organization ( CNRS – “Centre national de la recherche scientifique”) hired me. I moved to 法国 to continue my research work at 艾礼富, 欧洲核子研究中心. My destination in France was the provencal city of 马赛. My home institute wasCentre de Physique des Particules de Marseille” 或 CPPM. 当然, I didn’t speak a word of French, but that didn’t bother me much. (Before going to the US in 1987, I didn’t speak much English/Americanese either.)

End of 1995, on the 29th of Dec, I got married to . In early 1996, Kavita also moved to France. Kavita wasn’t too happy in France because she felt she could do much more in Singapore. She was right. Kavita is now an accomplished entrepreneur with two boutiques in Singapore and more business ideas than is good for her. She has won many awards and is a minor celebrity with the Singapore media. [Wedding picture]

在 1998, I got a good offer from what is now the 协会信息通信研究 and we decided to move to Singapore. Among the various personal reasons for the move, I should mention that the smell of racisim in the Marseilles air was one. Although every individual I personally met in France was great, I always had a nagging feeling that every one I did not meet wanted me out of there. This feeling was further confirmed by the immigration clerks at the Marignane airport constantly asking me toMettez-vous a cote, 绅士” and occassionally murmuringles francais d’abord. [Anita Smiles]

A week after I moved to Singapore, on the 24rth of July 1998, Anita was born. Incredibly cute and happy, Anita rearranged our priorities and put things in perspective. Five years later, on the 2nd of May 2003, Neil was born. He proved to be even more full of smiles.  [Neil Smiles more!]

In Singapore, I worked on a lot of various body-based measurements generating several patents and papers. Towards the end of my career with A-Star, I worked on brain signals, worrying about how to make sense of them and make them talk directly to a computer. This research direction influenced my thinking tremendously, though not in a way my employer would’ve liked. I started thinking about the role of perception in our world view and, consequently, in the theories of physics. I also realized how these ideas were not isolated musings, but were atriculated in various schools of philosophy. This line of thinking eventually ended up in my book, 虚幻宇宙.

Towards the second half of 2005, I decided to chuck research and get into quantitative finance, which is an ideal domain for a cash-strapped physicist. It turned out that I had some skills and aptitudes that were mutually lucrative to my employers and myself. My first job was as the head of the quantitative analyst team at OCBC, a regional bank in Singapore. 这中间的办公室工作, 涉及风险管理和削减热情洋溢的商人, gave me a thorough overview of pricing models and, perhaps more importantly, 冲突驱动的实现了银行的风险承受能力的完美理解.

 [Dad] 后来, 在 2007, I moved to 渣打银行, as a senior quantitative professional taking care of their in-house trading platform, which further enhanced my "big picture" outlook and inspired me to write 定量发展的原则. I am rather well recognized in my field, and as a regular columnist for the 维尔莫特杂志, I have published several articles on a variety of topics related to quants and quantitative finance, which is probably why John Wiley & Sons Ltd. asked me to write this book.

Despite these professional successes, on the personal front, 2008 has been a year of sadness. I lost my father on the 22nd of October. 该 death of a parent is a rude wake-up call. It brings about feelings of loss and pain that are hard to understand, and impossible to communicate. And for those of us with little gift of easy self-expression, they linger for longer than they perhaps should.

Universe – Size and Age

I posted this question that was bothering me when I read that they found a galaxy at about 13 billion light years away. My understanding of that statement is: At distance of 13 billion light years, there was a galaxy 13 billion years ago, so that we can see the light from it now. Wouldn’t that mean that the universe is at least 26 billion years old? It must have taken the galaxy about 13 billion years to reach where it appears to be, and the light from it must take another 13 billion years to reach us.

In answering my question, Martin and Swansont (who I assume are academic phycisists) point out my misconceptions and essentially ask me to learn more. All shall be answered when I’m assimilated, it would appear! 🙂

This debate is published as a prelude to my post on the Big Bang theory, coming up in a day or two.

Mowgli 03-26-2007 10:14 PM

Universe – Size and Age
I was reading a post in http://www.space.com/ stating that they found a galaxy at about 13 billion light years away. I am trying to figure out what that statement means. 对我来说,, it means that 13 billion years ago, this galaxy was where we see it now. Isn’t that what 13b LY away means? 如果是这样的, 那不是意味着宇宙是至少,,en,整个宇宙从一个奇点开始,,en,怎么会这样的星系是它在哪里,,en,十亿年前,除非它至少有,,en,十亿年才能到达那里,,en,暂时忽略通胀阶段,,en,我听到有人解释说,空间本身正在扩大,,en,这是什么意思,,en,是不是只是一种说法,认为光的速度是较小的,前一段时间的华丽的方式,,en,swansont,,en,引用,,en,最初发布者,,en,忽略所有的休息,,en,怎么会变成这样意味着宇宙,,en,光速是原子结构的固有部分,,en,在精细结构常数,,en,如果c的变化,,en,然后原子光谱的图案必须改变,,en,目前还没有任何证实的数据显示,甲型已经改变,,en 26 billion years old? 我的意思是, the whole universe started from one singular point; how could this galaxy be where it was 13 billion years ago unless it had at least 13 billion years to get there? (Ignoring the inflationary phase for the moment…) I have heard people explain that the space itself is expanding. What the heck does that mean? Isn’t it just a fancier way of saying that the speed of light was smaller some time ago?
swansont 03-27-2007 09:10 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Mowgli
(Post 329204)
我的意思是, the whole universe started from one singular point; how could this galaxy be where it was 13 billion years ago unless it had at least 13 billion years to get there? (Ignoring the inflationary phase for the moment…)

Ignoring all the rest, how would this mean the universe is 26 billion years old?

Quote:

Originally Posted by Mowgli
(Post 329204)
I have heard people explain that the space itself is expanding. What the heck does that mean? Isn’t it just a fancier way of saying that the speed of light was smaller some time ago?

The speed of light is an inherent part of atomic structure, in the fine structure constant (alpha). If c was changing, then the patterns of atomic spectra would have to change. There hasn’t been any confirmed data that shows that alpha has changed (出现了不定期文件声称它,,en,但你需要有人重复测量,,en,剩下的是所有没有变化一致,,en,马丁,,en,要确认或加强什么swansont说,,en,有猜测和涉及c更改随着时间的推移一些边缘或非标准的宇宙观,,en,或α随时间变化的,,en,但不断变化的常数的事情只是变得越来越裁定out.I've一直看超过,,en,年,越来越多的人看,研究证据的可能性就越小,似乎有什么变动,,en,他们用自己data.So排除这种可能性越来越精确它可能是最好忽略,,en,变化的光的速度,,en,直到宇宙学是一个非常熟悉的标准宇宙学的主流,,en,你有误解无忌,,en,理论,,en,胜过特别版本,,en, but you need someone to repeat the measurements), and the rest is all consistent with no change.

Martin 03-27-2007 11:25 AM

To confirm or reinforce what swansont said, there are speculation and some fringe or nonstandard cosmologies that involve c changing over time (or alpha changing over time), but the changing constants thing just gets more and more ruled out.I’ve been watching for over 5 years and the more people look and study evidence the LESS likely it seems that there is any change. They rule it out more and more accurately with their data.So it is probably best to ignore the “varying speed of light” cosmologies until one is thoroughly familiar with standard mainstream cosmology.You have misconceptions Mowgli

  • General Relativity (该 1915 theory) trumps Special Rel (1905)
  • 他们实际上并不矛盾,如果你正确地理解他们,,en,因为SR只有非常有限的当地适用性,,en,喜欢飞船路过,,en,只要GR和SR似乎矛盾,,en,相信GR,,en,这是比较全面的理论,,en,GR没有对距离非常远可以提高速率的速度极限,,en,唯一的限速是当地的东西,,en,你不能赶上,并通过光子,,en,因此,我们能够而且确实观察到的东西,是从我们更为快速的消退比C,,en,那会很远,,en,SR不适用。,,en,这是一个科学上午的文章,我认为去年在解释,,en,谷歌作者的名字查尔斯·莱恩威弗和塔玛拉·戴维斯,,en,我们知道很多东西,是目前超过,,en,十亿LY远,,en, because SR has only a very limited local applicability, like to the spaceship passing by:-)
  • Wherever GR and SR SEEM to contradict, believe GR. It is the more comprehensive theory.
  • GR does not have a speed limit on the rate that very great distances can increase. the only speed limit is on LOCAL stuff (you can’t catch up with and pass a photon)
  • So we can and DO observe stuff that is receding from us faster than c. (It’s far away, SR does not apply.)
  • This was explained in a Sci Am article I think last year
  • Google the author’s name Charles Lineweaver and Tamara Davis.
  • We know about plenty of stuff that is presently more than 14 billion LY away.
  • 你需要学习一些宇宙学,所以你不会被这些东西混淆,,en,也,,en,并不意味着单点,,en,这是一个流行的错误,因为该话音同,,en,奇点可以在整个区域发生,,en,甚至无限区域,,en,另外,,,en,大爆炸,,en,模型看起来不像物质从一些点呼啸离开爆炸,,en,它不应该被想象的那样,,en,最好的文章,解释常见的错误,人们在科学是这个莱恩威弗和戴维斯的事,,en,我认为这是一月或二月,,en,但我可能是一年的时间,,en,去谷歌上查询,,en,从当地的图书馆获取或在网上找到它,,en,我可以给最好的建议,,en,为了swansont为什么我想,,en,b LY隐含的年龄,,en,b年,,en,当你说,有一个在星系,,en,b LY远,,en,我明白它意味着,,en,十亿年前,我的时间,,en.
  • Also a “singularity” does not mean a single point. that is a popular mistake because the words SOUND the same.
  • A singularity can occur over an entire region, even an infinite region.

Also the “big bang” model doesn’t look like an explosion of matter whizzing away from some point. It shouldn’t be imagined like that. The best article explaining common mistakes people have is this Lineweaver and Davis thing in Sci Am. I think it was Jan or Feb 2005 but I could be a year off. Google it. Get it from your local library or find it online. Best advice I can give.

Mowgli 03-28-2007 01:30 AM

To swansont on why I thought 13 b LY implied an age of 26 b years:When you say that there is a galaxy at 13 b LY away, I understand it to mean that 13 billion years ago my time, 星系是在那里我看到现在的地步,,en,b LY远离我,,en,明知一切从相同点开始,,en,它必须采取至少星系,,en,b年来获得它在哪里,,en,b年前,,en,我敢肯定,我一定是wrong.To马丁,,en,我需要学习相当多的关于宇宙学,,en,但你提到的几件事情让我感到吃惊,,en,我们如何观察到的东西,是从作为FTL后退,,en,不会相对论多普勒频移式给出假想1个 Z,,en,而超越的东西,,en,他们是,,en,外,,en,我一定会抬头看你提到的作者,,en,我敢肯定,我一定是错的,,en,这将取决于你怎么做你的校准,,en,只是看着多普勒频移,而忽略其他影响因素,,en,如果你知道,速度与距离相关,,en (which is 13 b LY away from me). Knowing that everything started from the same point, it must have taken the galaxy at least 13 b years to get where it was 13 b years ago. 所以 13+13. I’m sure I must be wrong.To Martin: 你是对的,,en,还有更多的这种思路的不仅仅是暴和AGN飞机,,en,续集本文,,en,讨论了一些含义,,en,但这部续集太投机得到发表在什么像样的杂志,,en,我跟我的日常工作太忙,担心这些事情,,en,但是我希望要回物理学,,en,并且可能还要理念,,en,在几年,,en,干杯,,en, I need to learn quite a bit more about cosmology. But a couple of things you mentioned surprise me — how do we observe stuff that is receding from as FTL? 我的意思是, wouldn’t the relativistic Doppler shift formula give imaginary 1 z? And the stuff beyond 14 b LY away – are they “outside” 宇宙?I will certainly look up and read the authors you mentioned. 谢谢.
swansont 03-28-2007 03:13 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Mowgli
(Post 329393)
To swansont on why I thought 13 b LY implied an age of 26 b years:When you say that there is a galaxy at 13 b LY away, I understand it to mean that 13 billion years ago my time, 星系是在那里我看到现在的地步,,en,b LY远离我,,en,明知一切从相同点开始,,en,它必须采取至少星系,,en,b年来获得它在哪里,,en,b年前,,en,我敢肯定,我一定是wrong.To马丁,,en,我需要学习相当多的关于宇宙学,,en,但你提到的几件事情让我感到吃惊,,en,我们如何观察到的东西,是从作为FTL后退,,en,不会相对论多普勒频移式给出假想1个 Z,,en,而超越的东西,,en,他们是,,en,外,,en,我一定会抬头看你提到的作者,,en,我敢肯定,我一定是错的,,en,这将取决于你怎么做你的校准,,en,只是看着多普勒频移,而忽略其他影响因素,,en,如果你知道,速度与距离相关,,en (which is 13 b LY away from me). Knowing that everything started from the same point, it must have taken the galaxy at least 13 b years to get where it was 13 b years ago. 所以 13+13. I’m sure I must be wrong.

That would depend on how you do your calibration. Looking only at a Doppler shift and ignoring all the other factors, if you know that speed correlates with distance, you get a certain redshift and you would probably calibrate that to mean 13b LY if that was the actual distance. That light would be 13b years old.

But as Martin has pointed out, space is expanding; the cosmological redshift is different from the Doppler shift. Because the intervening space has expanded, AFAIK the light that gets to us from a galaxy 13b LY away is not as old, because it was closer when the light was emitted. I would think that all of this is taken into account in the measurements, so that when a distance is given to the galaxy, it’s the actual distance.

Martin 03-28-2007 08:54 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Mowgli
(Post 329393)
I will certainly look up and read the authors you mentioned.

This post has 5 或 6 links to that Sci Am article by Lineweaver and Davis

HTTP://scienceforums.net/forum/showt…965#post142965

It is post #65 on the Astronomy links sticky thread

It turns out the article was in the March 2005 issue.

I think it’s comparatively easy to read—well written. So it should help.

When you’ve read the Sci Am article, ask more questions—your questions might be fun to try and answer:-)

Twin Paradox – Take 2

The Twin Paradox is usually explained away by arguing that the traveling twin feels the motion because of his acceleration/deceleration, and therefore ages slower.

But what will happen if the twins both accelerate symmetrically? 这是, they start from rest from one space point with synchronized clocks, and get back to the same space point at rest by accelerating away from each other for some time and decelerating on the way back. By the symmetry of the problem, it seems that when the two clocks are together at the end of the journey, at the same point, and at rest with respect to each other, they have to agree.

然后再, during the whole journey, each clock is in motion (accelerated or not) with respect to the other one. In SR, every clock that is in motion with respect to an observer’s clock is supposed run slower. 或, the observer’s clock is always the fastest. 所以, for each twin, the other clock must be running slower. 然而, when they come back together at the end of the journey, they have to agree. This can happen only if each twin sees the other’s clock running faster at some point during the journey. What does SR say will happen in this imaginary journey?

(Note that the acceleration of each twin can be made constant. Have the twins cross each other at a high speed at a constant linear deceleration. They will cross again each other at the same speed after sometime. During the crossings, their clocks can be compared.)

虚幻时间

远见写道::时间是连续事件的速度依赖主观的措施,而不是根本性的东西 – 该事件标志着时间, 时间不庆祝活动. 这意味着的东西了还有空间,而不是时空, 和是一个 “醚” 主观时间遮掩.

我喜欢你的时间定义. 这是接近我自己的观点,即时间 “虚幻。” 因此能够处理空间作为真实和空间 - 时间作为不同的东西, 为你做. 这需要一些仔细的思考. 我将概述我的想法在这个岗位,并用一个例子来说明吧, 如果我的朋友们不要拉我出去吃午饭之前,我可以完成. :)

我们需要问自己的第一个问题就是为什么空间与时间似乎耦合? 其实答案太简单被发现, 它是在你的时间定义. 通过我们的速度的概念,我们的大脑的感知能力,运动时间和空间组合. 还有一个更深层的连接, 这是空间的光子投入认知表征我们的眼睛, 但我们会得到它后.

假设一秒钟,我们不得不说,在一个无限的速度运行第六感. 这是, 如果恒星爆炸在一百万光年距离我们, 马上就可以感受到它. 我们将 后,才一万年, 但是我们感觉到它立即. 我知道, 这是违反SR, 不可能发生,所有的, 但留在我的第二个. 现在, 思想一点点会说服你,那我们感觉到使用这个假设的第六感的空间牛顿. 这里, 空间和时间可完全解耦, 绝对时间可以被定义等. 从这个空间开始, 我们实际上可以工作了,我们会看到它使用的光,我们的眼睛, 知道光的速度是它是什么. 它会变成, 显然, 我们看到了延迟事件. 这是一个一阶 (或静) 效果. 二阶效应是我们感知运动中的物体的方式. 事实证明,我们将看到一个时间膨胀,长度收缩 (的对象远离我们。)

让我举例说明这一点再使用回声定位. 假设你是一个盲目的蝙蝠. 您使用声纳坪感觉你的空间. 你可以感受到一种超音速目标? 如果迎面走来,你, 通过时的反射平到达您, 它已经过去,你. 如果是从你要走了, 你坪永远无法赶上. 换句话说, 速度比声音出行 “禁止的。” 如果你多了一个假设, – 在ping的速度是它们的运动状态相同的所有蝙蝠不管 – 你得到的蝙蝠特殊相对论,其中声音的速度是空间和时间的基本属性!

我们必须挖得更深一些,并认识到,空间并不比时间更真实. 空间是一个认知结构创造出我们的感觉输入. 如果感测模态 (光我们, 响蝙蝠) 有一个有限的速度, 这样的速度 成为所得到的空间的基本特性. 空间和时间将通过感觉通道的速度耦合.

这, 当然, 是SR只有我自己谦虚的解释. 我想这张贴在一个新的线程, 但我得到的人是有点太执着在这个版面自己的意见,能听的感觉.

狮子座写:闵可夫斯基时空的洛伦兹变换的一种解释, 但其他的解释, 它与物质的波模型原有的洛伦兹 - 庞加莱©相对论和现代化版本 (LaFreniere 或关闭,或许多其他), 在一个完美的欧几里得三维空间工作.

因此,我们最终与工艺放缓和收缩物质, 但没有时间扩张或收缩的空间. 该转换是相同的,虽然. 那么,为什么一种解释导致张量的度量,而另一些则不然? 还是他们都? 我缺乏理论背景来回答这个问题.

狮子座喜,

如果定义公升运动中的物体的速度取决于变形, 然后就可以进行转型与时间的函数. 不会有任何变形和度量张量和东西的并发症. 其实我在我的书中确实是沿着这些线路的东西 (虽然不是很), 如你所知.

故障发生时的变换矩阵是向量的函数的变换. 所以, 如果你在一个四维时空定义公升矩阵运算, 你不能再让它的时间,通过任何的加速度比你更可以把它的位置的函数的函数 (如在速度场, 例如。) 时空扭曲是一种数学的必要性. 因为它, 你失去了坐标, 而我们学习的本科几年的工具不再足够强大的处理问题.

旋转, LT和加速

在 “哲学意蕴” 论坛, 有人试图用一些巧妙的微积分或数字技术把加速到洛伦兹变换. 因为一个颇为有趣的几何原因,这种尝试是行不通的. 我想我会发布洛伦兹变换的几何解释 (或者如何从SR遗传资源去) 这里.

先说一对夫妇的免责声明. 首先,, 接下来是我的LT / SR / GR的理解. 我把它张贴在这里与诚实的信念,这是对的. 虽然我有足够的学历来说服我犯错误的自己, 谁知道? 很多人比我聪明让每一天证明是错误的. 和, 如果我们有我们的方式, 我们将证明,甚至爱因斯坦本人是非在这个论坛, 不会,我们? :D 其次, 我写的东西可能是太基本了一些读者, 甚至侮辱等等. 我要求他们承担了它, 考虑到一些其他的读者可能会发现它照亮. 第三, 这个帖子是不是对理论的正确与错误的评论; 它只不过是什么样的理论说的描述. 或者更确切地说,, 我的版本是什么,他们说. 与免责声明闪开, 让我们开始吧…

LT是在4-D空间中时的旋转. 因为它不容​​易想象四维时空旋转, 让我们开始的2-D, 纯粹空间旋转. 几何中的一个基本属性 (如2-D欧几里得空间) 它是度量张量. 度量张量限定在空间中的两个向量之间的内积. 在正常 (欧几里得或平) 空间, 它也定义两个点之间的距离 (或一个矢量的长度).

虽然度量张量有可怕的 “张量” 字在其名称, 一旦你定义了一个坐标系, 它仅仅是一个矩阵. 用于与x和y坐标的欧几里德2-D空间, 它是单位矩阵 (两个1的沿对角线). 让我们把它叫做ğ. 向量A和B之间的内积AB =反(一) G B, 它的工作原理证明是 a_1b_1+a_2b_2. 距离 (或A的长度) 可以被定义为 \sqrt{A.A}.

到目前为止,在后, 度规张量看起来相当无用, 不仅因为它是为欧氏空间中的单位矩阵. SR (或LT), 另一方面, 用闵可夫斯基空间, 其具有可以写入用度量 [-1, 1, 1, 1] 沿对角线与所有其他元素为零 – 假设时刻t的坐标系统中的第一组分. 让我们考虑一个二维闵可夫斯基空间的简单, 随着时间的推移 (吨) 和距离 (x) 轴. (这是一个有点过于简单化,因为这个空间不能处理打圈, 这是在某些线程流行。) 在单位,使C = 1, 你可以很容易地看到,使用这种度量张量不变的距离 \sqrt{x^2 - t^2}.

Continued…

虚幻宇宙 — 讨论与纪伯伦

Hi again,You raise a lot of interesting questions. Let me try to answer them one by one.

You’re saying that our observations of an object moving away from us would look identical in either an SR or Galilean context, and therefore this is not a good test for SR.

What I’m saying is slightly different. The coordinate transformation in SR is derived considering only receding objects and sensing it using radar-like round trip light travel time. It is then assumed that the transformation laws thus derived apply to all objects. Because the round trip light travel is used, the transformation works for approaching objects as well, but not for things moving in other directions. But SR assumes that the transformation is a property of space and time and asserts that it applies to all moving (inertial) frames of reference regardless of direction.

We have to go a little deeper and ask ourselves what that statement means, what it means to talk about the properties of space. We cannot think of a space independent of our perception. Physicists are typically not happy with this starting point of mine. They think of space as something that exists independent of our sensing it. And they insist that SR applies to this independently existing space. I beg to differ. I consider space as a cognitive construct based on our perceptual inputs. There is an underlying reality that is the cause of our perception of space. It may be nothing like space, but let’s assume, for the sake of argument, that the underlying reality is like Galilean space-time. How would be perceive it, given that we perceive it using light (one-way travel of light, not two-way as SR assumes)? It turns out that our perceptual space would have time dilation and length contraction and all other effect predicted by SR. So my thesis is that the underlying reality obeys Galilean space-time and our perceptual space obeys something like SR. (It is possible that if I assume that our perception uses two-way light travel, I may get SR-like transformation. I haven’t done it because it seems obvious to me that we perceive a star, 例如, by sensing the light from it rather than flashing a light at it.)

This thesis doesn’t sit well with physicists, and indeed with most people. They mistakeperceptual effects to be something like optical illusions. My point is more like space itself is an illusion. If you look at the night sky, you know that the stars you see are not “实” in the sense that they are not there when you are looking at them. This is simply because the information carrier, namely light, 有一个有限的速度. If the star under observation is in motion, our perception of its motion is distorted for the same reason. SR is an attempt to formalize our perception of motion. Since motion and speed are concepts that mix space and time, SR has to operate onspace-time continuum. Since SR is based on perceptual effects, it requires an observer and describes motion as he perceives it.

But are you actually saying that not a single experiment has been done with objects moving in any other direction than farther away? And what about experiments on time dilation where astronauts go into space and return with clocks showing less elapsed time than ones that stayed on the ground? Doesn’t this support the ideas inherent in SR?

Experiments are always interpreted in the light of a theory. 这是 always a model based interpretation. I know that this is not a convincing argument for you, so let me give you an example. Scientists have observed superluminal motion in certain celestial objects. They measure the angular speed of the celestial object, and they have some estimate of its distance from us, so they can estimate the speed. If we didn’t have SR, there would be nothing remarkable about this observation of superluminality. Since we do have SR, one has to find anexplanation for this. The explanation is this: when an object approaches us at a shallow angle, it can appear to come in quite a bit faster than its real speed. Thus the “实” speed is subluminal while the “明显的” speed may be superluminal. This interpretation of the observation, 在我看来, breaks the philosophical grounding of SR that it is a description of the motion as it appears to the observer.

现在, there are other observations of where almost symmetric ejecta are seen on opposing jets in symmetric celestial objects. The angular speeds may indicate superluminality in both the jets if the distance of the object is sufficiently large. Since the jets are assumed to be back-to-back, if one jet is approaching us (thereby giving us the illusion of superluminality), the other jet has bet receding and can never appear superluminal, 除非, 当然, the underlying motion is superluminal. The interpretation of this observation is that the distance of the object is limited by thefactthat real motion cannot be superluminal. This is what I mean by experiments being open to theory or model based interpretations.

In the case of moving clocks being slower, it is never a pure SR experiment because you cannot find space without gravity. 除了, one clock has to be accelerated or decelerated and GR applies. 否则, the age-old twin paradox would apply.

I know there have been some experiments done to support Einstein’s theories, like the bending of light due to gravity, but are you saying that all of them can be consistently re-interpreted according to your theory? If this is so, it’s dam surprising! 我的意思是, no offense to youyou’re obviously a very bright individual, and you know much more about this stuff than I do, but I’d have to question how something like this slipped right through physicistsfingers for 100 年.

These are gravity related questions and fall under GR. 我的 “theory” doesn’t try to reinterpret GR or gravity at all. I put theory in inverted quotes because, to me, it is a rather obvious observation that there is a distinction between what we see and the underlying causes of our perception. The algebra involved is fairly simple by physics standards.

Supposing you’re right in that space and time are actually Galilean, and that the effects of SR are artifacts of our perception. How then are the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments explained? I’m sorry if you did explain it in your book, but it must have flown right over my head. Or are we leaving this as a mystery, an anomaly for future theorists to figure out?

I haven’t completely explained MMX, more or less leaving it as a mystery. I think the explanation hinges on how light is reflected off a moving mirror, which I pointed out in the book. Suppose the mirror is moving away from the light source at a speed of v in our frame of reference. Light strikes it at a speed of c-v. What is the speed of the reflected light? If the laws of reflection should hold (it’s not immediately obvious that they should), then the reflected light has to have a speed of c-v as well. This may explain why MMX gives null result. I haven’t worked out the whole thing though. I will, once I quit my day job and dedicate my life to full-time thinking. :-)

My idea is not a replacement theory for all of Einstein’s theories. It’s merely a reinterpretation of one part of SR. Since the rest of Einstein’s edifice is built on this coordinate transformation part, I’m sure there will be some reinterpretation of the rest of SR and GR also based on my idea. 同样, this is a project for later. My reinterpretation is not an attempt to prove Einstein’s theories wrong; I merely want to point out that they apply to reality as we perceive it.

总体, it was worth the $5 I payed. Thanks for the good read. Don’t take my questions as an assault on your proposalI’m honestly in the dark about these things and I absolutely crave light (he he). If you could kindly answer them in your spare time, I’d love to share more ideas with you. It’s good to find a fellow thinker to bounce cool ideas like this off of. I’ll PM you again once I’m fully done the book. 同样, it was a very satisfying read.

谢谢! I’m glad that you like my ideas and my writing. I don’t mind criticism at all. Hope I have answered most of your questions. 如果没有, or if you want to disagree with my answers, feel free to write back. Always a pleasure to chat about these things even if we don’t agree with each other.

Best regards,
– 手

反相对论和Superluminality

狮子座写:我有一些问题,但在导言部分, 当你面对光的传播效应和相对论变换. 你正确指出所有感性的幻想已经被清除了狭义相对论的概念, 但你也可以说,这些感性的幻想依然作为狭义相对论的认知模式的一种潜意识的基础. 我明白你的意思还是我搞错了?

感性的影响是已知的物理; 他们被称为轻旅行时间的影响 (LTT, 煮了的缩写). 这些作用被认为是对被观察物的运动的光学错觉. 一旦你采取了LTT影响, 你得到的 “实” 物体的运动 . 这种真正的运动应该服从SR. 这是SR的电流解释.

我的论点是,LTT效果是如此相似,SR,我们应该想到的SR作为LTT只是一个形式化. (事实上, 稍微错误的形式化。) 原因很多说法:
1. 我们不能disentagle的 “视错觉” 因为许多潜在的配置产生相同的感知. 换句话说, 从我们看到的是什么引起了我们的看法将是一个一对多的问题.
2. SR坐标变换部分地基于LTT效果.
3. LTT效果比相对论效应更强.

大概由于这些原因, SR是什么呢,是说我们所看到的就是真的很喜欢. 然后,它会尝试用数学描述我们所看到的. (这就是我的意思被formaliztion. ) 后来, 当我们想通了,LTT的影响并没有完全与SR匹配 (如在观察 “明显的” 超光速运动), 我们认为我们必须 “取出” 在LTT效果,然后说,底层运动 (或空间和时间) 遵命SR. 什么我建议在我的书和文章,是我们应该只是猜的底层空间和时间都喜欢和什么工作我们的看法将是 (因为去的另一种方式是一个病态1对多的问题). 我的第一个猜测, 自然, 是伽利略时空. 这个猜测的结果暴和DRAGNs的相当整洁和简单explantions鲁米繁荣及其后果.

试论每日邮报 (联合王国)

On the Daily Mail forum, one participant (所谓 “whats-in-a-name”) started talking about 虚幻宇宙 on July 15, 2006. It was attacked fairly viciously on the forum. I happened to see it during a Web search and decided to step in and defend it.

15 七月, 2006

Posted by: whats-in-a-name on 15/07/06 在 09:28 AM

Ah, Kek, you’ve given me a further reason to be distracted from what I should be doing- and I can tell you that this is more interesting at the moment.I’ve been trying to formulate some ideas and there’s one coming- but I’ll have to give it to you in bits.I don’t want to delve into pseudoscience or take the woo-ish road that says that you can explain everything with quantum theory, but try starting here: HTTP://theunrealuniverse.com/phys.shtml

该 “Journal Articlelink at the bottom touches on some of the points that we discussed elsewhere. It goes slightly off-topic, but you might also find the “哲学” link at the top left interesting.

Posted by: patopreto on 15/07/06 在 06:17 PM

Regarding that web site wian.One does not need to ead past this sentence

The theories of physics are a description of reality. Reality is created out of the readings from our senses. Knowing that our senses all work using light as an intermediary, is it a surprise that the speed of light is of fundamental importance in our reality?

to realise that tis web site is complete ignorant hokum. I stopped at that point.

16 七月, 2006

Posted by: whats-in-a-name on 16/07/06 在 09:04 AM

I’ve just been back to read that bit more carefully. I don’t know why the writer phrased it like that but surely what he meant was:(我) “Our perception of what is real is created out of the readings from our senses. I think that most physicists wouldn’t argue with that would they? At the quantum level reality as we understand it doesn’t exist; you can only say that particles have more of a tendency to exist in one place or state than another.(ii) The information that we pick up from optical or radio telescopes, gamma-ray detectors and the like, shows the state of distant objects as they were in the past, owing to the transit time of the radiation. Delving deeper into space therefore enables us to look further back into the history of the universe.It’s an unusual way to express the point, 我同意, but it doesn’t devalue the other information on there. In particular there are links to other papers that go into rather more detail, but I wanted to start with something that offered a more general view.

I get the impression that your study of physics is rather more advanced than mine- as I’ve said previously I’m only an amateur, though I’ve probably taken my interest a bit further than most. I’m happy to be corrected if any of my reasoning is flawed, though what I’ve said so far s quite basic stuff.

The ideas that I’m trying to express in response to Keka’s challenge are my own and again, I’m quite prepared to have you or anyone else knock them down. I’m still formulating my thoughts and I wanted to start by considering the model that physicists use of the nature of matter, going down to the grainy structure of spacetime at the Plank distance and quantum uncertainty.

I’ll have to come back to this in a day or two, but meanwhile if you or anyone else wants to offer an opposing view, please do.

Posted by: patopreto on 16/07/06 在 10:52 AM

I don’t know why the writer phrased it like that but surely what he meant was:

I think the write is quit clear! WIANyou have re-written what he says to mean something different.

The writer is quite clear – “Once we accept that space and time are a part of the cognitive model created by the brain, and that special relativity applies to the cognitive model, we can ponder over the physical causes behind the model, the absolute reality itself.

Blah Blah Blah!

The writer, 手Thulasidas, is an employee of OCBC bank in Singapore and self-described “amateur philosopher”. What is he writes appears to be nothing more than a religiously influenced solipsistic philosophy. Solipsism is interesting as a philosophical standpoint but quickly falls apart. If Manoj can start his arguments from such shaky grounds without explanation, then I really have no other course to take than to accept his descriptions of himself asamateur”.

Maybe back to MEQUACK!