And the Wind Whispered…

[This post is my translation of an excellent short story by one of the most gifted storytellers of our time, O.V.Vijayan. The translation from Malayalam is a feeble effort, because such distant translations are not merely between languages, but cultures. The untranslatable expressions are marked with asterisks. Enjoy!]

Reached Kanjikad from Palghat by Coimbatore street. From there on, it was unpaved dirt road to the mountains. Even the rough taxi Jeep found that hard to take. This was Theyunni’s second trip here in the last ten years and he had no complaints about the roughness now.

“Ditch ahead”, Driver said, glancing at the dirt road in front.

“If you want to stop here, it’s okay”, Theyunni offered, “I can walk.”

It’s about two miles from here. Accustomed as he was to the comfort of limousine rides between airports and star hotels, the prospect of the hard hike did not discourage Theyunni.

“Nah. We’ll go slow, sit tight.”

“Okay.”

The Jeep carefully negotiated the winding mountain road. Theyunni glanced at the wild valley as if for the first time. The sunshine cooled by the hillside, the east winds tunnelled through the mountain passes and roaring towards Palghat…

“The trees are all gone, aren’t they, Driver?”, Theyunni observed.

“All downed. Was forests here till about five years ago. Elephants used to come down.”

Oo, last time when he was here, there were huge trees on either side. Trees he didn’t know the names of. There were crickets all around carrying on with their shrill orchestra. Theyunni recalled that journey. He was coming back to Bombay after a European trip and his wife was at the airport. Sinabi niya, “There is a letter from home, looks like *Brother’s handwriting.”

“Wonder what is happening. Didn’t you open it, Phoebe?”

“You know I don’t open your letters.”

When the car was moving towards Juhu, Theyunni stole a glance at Phoebe’s face behind the wheel. Like a flawless marble sculpture with golden hair dancing in the wind. It was against her culture to open her husband’s letters. There were many things in her culture that attracted him — her confident courage in kissing him in that garden few years ago, proclaiming, “I love you”. If the relationship were to turn sour in the years to come, the honesty and integrity that would make her say, “I do not love you any more, we have to get divorced”. These were the challenges that inspired him. He remembered the journey home to tell *Father that he was in love with Phoebe, his fellow-student at Stanford. Father did not say anything against it, just smiled his sweet, thoughtful smile. It was *Mother — “We had Devaki’s horoscope looked at…”

Devaki was a distant relative. The daughter of some in-land farmer. Hiding his contempt for horoscopes, Theyunni comforted Mother, “That is not much, Mother. We didn’t give our word.”

Nobody said anything for a while. Then Mother said, “Isn’t understanding as big as word? It’s like Devaki has married you in her heart.”

“It’s the boy’s decision, Madhavi,” Father said, “Why do you want to say this and that?”

Mother withdrew herself, “I didn’t say anything…”

“Don’t worry about Mother’s complaints, Kutta. Kaya, do you like this Phoebe?”

Theyunni was a little embarrassed, “Yes.”

“Will an American girl like to live in this old family house of ours, Kutta?”, Mother inquired.

“Why wouldn’t she?”

Father said, “It’s not as though they are going to come live here, ay ito?”

“So Father and Son have decided that as well,” Mother said, “that they don’t want to live here?”

“Wherever we live, we’ll come here first, Mother.”

Theyunni saw Mother’s eyes well up. After blessing Phoebe and wishing Devaki well in her life, Mother said, “I won’t ask you to change your mind. Pero, will you look after Father, Kutta?”

“Of course.”

“You remember how he used to be? His body is getting old…”

Father intervened again with his smile, “Madhavi, why do you say such things and make him unhappy? Don’t pay any attention to her, Kutta.”

Even during the novelty of his love, Theyunni could feel *Devaki’s true meaning in his *rustic heart — the farmer bride who would sweep the floor and light the evening lamp. Mother said, “There was only one thing on my mind — your sister-in-law is not able-bodied. If it had been Devaki, there was a hope that she would look after your father in his old age…”

Theyunni didn’t say anything then. Even in the later years, he couldn’t say anything about that. Phoebe, who never opened her husband’s letters, drove skillfully through the streets of Juhu. When Father fell sick years after the marriage, Phoebe advised, “Your little town is actually a village. Why don’t we take him to a good hospital in a city? We can easily afford that.”

What Father needed was nearness and touch to die peacefully. Theyunni came home alone with those and saw him off. Mother also died in the old family house. Phoebe was back at Stanford then. She sent a formal condolence telegram. *Devaki‘s meaning again filled his mind.

In Juhu, Theyunni read Brother’s letter. “I’m not doing too well, Kutta. Just to let you know. I won’t ask you to take time off your busy schedule and come by these forests. Just think of me, same effect as seeing. Didn’t even let Sreekumar know. I was worried that he might get anxious and take a trip — not easy to come here from Cambridge, ay ito? If only your sister-in-law had been alive… Weaknesses of an old heart…”

The Jeep continued it’s laborious journey negotiating an occasional ditch and gutter.

“Sorry about the trouble, Driver,” Theyunni tried to comfort the driver.

“Nah, just doing my job.”

Must be another mile from here. It was after his wife’s death that Brother decided to resign from service and move to the high lands. Theyunni vehemently opposed that decision. “Why are you moving to this god-forsaken land in Palghat among leopards and wild boars? Dagdag pa rito, you could be in service for another 10 taon. Even after retiring, you know that a nuclear physicist can do so many things…”

Brother’s reply came, “There are debts that one owes — to one’s country, one’s community, one’s family. I feel that I have repaid my dues to the best of my ability. There are some other obligations that I have to take care of. That’s is why I’m seeking refuge in these valleys.”

Brother never mentioned what those obligations were. Theyunni didn’t inquire either.

The soft-spoken Brother took a decision only after much reasoning; it was not easy to make him go back on them. Ibang Pagkakataon, Brother wrote about his camp-site: about four miles off the road, there were fertile lands lying just outside the woods. Brother built a house there, among coconut palms, vegetables, mango trees… Dirt walls, wooden ceiling and roofs of clay tiles. It was at some distance from anywhere. Gayunpaman, there was a farmer, Ponnuswami, living in a hut nearby. Brother could ask Ponnuswami for help if needed. Apart from that, he was quite alone in that valley. Theyunni could not figure out the meaning of that penance and forgot about it. Years went by. But when Phoebe handed over that unopened letter, he suddenly felt that he should go there in a hurry.

“Mahusay, Phoebe, I’ll go and see what’s going on.”

“What is the name of that place? Kanjikad, Hindi ito?”

“Yes.”

“Brother had invited me to go and see the mountains.”

“Oo, I remember.”

“Must be a perfect place for get-away vacation. But it’s dangerous to get sick there. Why don’t you bring him here? We could have him treated at Jeslock or something.”

Phoebe was repeating her suggestion on treatments. Theyunni remembered the last time the suggestion was offered and it made him uneasy.

“We can’t get inside his mind, Phoebe. I’ll go there and see.”

That was how Theyunni came here for the first time, ten years ago. Not only was he anxious about Brother’s health and solitary life, he also wanted to give Brother a piece of his mind about the untimely penance. When he took a taxi from Coimbatore airport to go to Kanjikad, his mind was filled with impatience and hard feelings towards Brother. The driver got discouraged by the sight of ditches and gutters in the dirt road. It didn’t take too much to provoke Theyunni.

“I could break the axile if I drove up this way,” complained the driver who was Tamil.

“How much does this stupid car of yours cost?”

“Sorry Sir, didn’t mean to…”

“If your car breaks, let it break. I’ll give you what it costs. Drive.”

When he got off the car, Theyunni saw Brother taking a walk in the field — looking bright and healthy.

“Why did you come all this way, Kutta?”, Brother commented on the advisability of the trip.

“You can say that. Living in the forests, writing letters about getting sick, how could I ignore it?”

“Come in.” Brother took him inside the house.

Theyunni looked around and found everything unsatisfactory. “Why do you punish yourself like this?”

“Do I look as though this is punishment?”

Nobody said anything for a while. Then Theyunni inquired, “Who treated you while you were ill?”

“Teat?! Nobody!”

“What am I supposed to say about that?”

Brother smiled, “You don’t get it, gawin mo, Kutta?”

“What do you do for food?”

“I have asked Ponnuswami’s wife to show up. To cook something for you. Me, this is all I eat.”

He pointed to the husks of two young coconuts in the basket. “That was breakfast. Two more for dinner.”

“That is you diet?!”

“Not just diet, medicine as well!”

When it got dark, Theyunni wanted to know, “Brother, what if some thieves show up?”

Brother laughed heartily, “Four white *mundu, four cotton shawls, two towels and some clay pots. That’s all this house holds. The thief is quite peaceful by nature, it’s our avarice that makes him do this and that!”

After dinner, they laid down to sleep — sa sahig, on sleeping mats. For Theyunni, it was the first time in a long while without the air conditioner. The winds roared outside the house. Through the mountain passes, like the loud waves in an uptide.

“Kutta”

“Oo, Brother?”

“You hear that?”

“The winds, karapatan?”

“Oo, but to you hear them?”

“Oo, Gagawin ko. Why do you ask?”

Brother was silent for a while in the darkness. Then he said, “Huwag, you don’t hear them.”

It was with the same dissatisfaction at Brother’s life in the wilderness that Theyunni went back to Bombay. Brother said, seeing him off, “It was a mistake, Kutta. A weakness. Felt like writing to you when I was ill; I won’t bother you like this again. There aren’t any illnesses that these valleys can’t cure. And if there are, do humans have medicines for them?”

Ngayon, it was ten years after those words that Theyunni was coming back. Phoebe was not with him any more. She showed her natural honesty and told him that the love between them had dried out. Theyunni did not fly from Bombay. He took the train to Palghat along with numerous other people. Like in his childhood, in second class. Two day journey. Hills and woods and rivers and villages slowly went by in the window as the train ambled towards Palghat. The old family house was no longer there. So he rested in a hotel and set out for Kanjikad the next morning. His gruffiness during the last journey ten years ago had disappeared now. Theyunni felt that his peacefulness was spreading to the fellow passengers and even the landscapes.

The Jeep driver also was friendliness personified.

“Hard trip, Hindi ito, Driver?”

“Nah, we are quite used to these. A little worried about your trouble, that is all.”

Brother’s fences and steps appeared at a distance.

“Over there, Driver.”

“Isolated house, Hindi ito, Ginoo?”

“Yes.”

Ponnuswami was waiting by the house. He stepped down to welcome Theyunni. They looked at each other; Ponnuswami wiped his tears.

“He had asked me not to telegram, that is why I wrote a letter instead.” Ponnuswami said, “I am sorry.”

“Not at all, you were respecting Brother’s wishes. I understand.”

Ponnuswami walked over to the backyard. There was a small plot where a Thulasi plant was beginning to take root. Ash remnants of the pyre around it.

“This is it,” Ponnuswami said. “The bones were dropped in the Peroor river. If there are some other rituals you want to do… Pero,…”

“Oo, Ponnuswami?”

“He said that no rituals were necessary. That he had uprooted the rituals. I am not educated, just thought that he was talking about some sacred state.”

“That must be what he meant.”

“Is Sreekumar coming up?”

“I had telephoned him from Bombay. He is not coming. He had told me one thing — that this land and house are for you.”

Ponnuswami had gone beyond such earthly things. “He also had told me the same thing; I didn’t want to tell you. Pero, I don’t need any of this. You or Sreekumar could sell these…”

“Brother’s wishes, Ponnuswami. We must respect them.”

“Mahusay, if you insist.”

“How many children do you have?”

“Four.”

“Mahusay, this will be a good place for them to grow up in.”

Ponnuswami bowed once again, “If you ever want to come back and live here, my family and I will get out of here for you.”

“That won’t be necessary, Ponnuswami.”

I don’t deserve to live here, Theyunni said to himself. They got back into the house.

“You take rest. I will get you a young coconut from the fields.”

“The driver is waiting in the Jeep outside. Ask him to come inside and have something to drink.”

When Ponnuswami brought the young coconuts, Theyunni said, “You can go home now, if you like. I’m fine.”

Ponnuswami left. Theyunni said to the driver. “Do you think you can stay here overnight?”

The driver expressed his disagreement through silence.

“Didn’t plan that way when we set out,” Theyunni said. “This is Brother’s house. I came here because he died, couldn’t get here before.”

The driver turned attentive. Theyunni continued, “Feel like sleeping here for a night.”

The driver’s disagreement melted away silently. “I can stay.”

“I can pay you whatever you want for staying.”

“That won’t be necessary.”

Time turned red and went down on the hilltops. Theyunni went inside and went through Brother’s wooden box. Three white mundu’s, laundered, three cotton shawls and two towels. Theyunni’s sadness dripped into them. When he went to bed, he was not sad any more, a kind of gratified grief. A fulfillment of love and traditions. He slept with the childhood dreams of fairy tales. Late in the night, he woke up. He listened to the music of the winds. After this night, it would be the trip back to the city. Theyunni could feel Brother’s kindness in the winds. The winds muttered the unknown *Manthras that marked the end of that kindness and life, some *distant baby voices… A night full of sacred whispers, this was the *justification of lifetime.

Theyunni listened to the whispers and slept, awaiting the morning.

The Story So Far …

Sa unang bahagi ng mga ikaanimnapung taon,,en,Santa Kumari Amma nagpasya upang lumipat sa Mataas Sanayan,,en,Siya ay kamakailan-lamang na nagsimula nagtatrabaho sa KSEB kung saan ay pagbuo ng isang hydro-electric proyekto there.The lugar ay generically tinatawag na High Sanayan,,en,kahit na ang mga saklaw ay hindi lahat na mataas na,,en,Ang mga tao sinabi sa kanya na ang magaspang at matigas High Sanayan ay walang lugar para sa isang batang babae na bansa tulad ng kanyang,,en,ngunit siya pinaghahanap upang pumunta anyways,,en,sinenyasan higit sa lahat sa pamamagitan ng ang katunayan na ang nagkaroon ng ilang mga proyekto allowance kasangkot at maaaring siya gumamit ng anumang maliit na bit na nagmula sa kanyang paraan,,en,Ang kanyang pamilya ay lubos na mahihirap,,en,Siya ay dumating mula sa isang maliit na nayon na tinatawag na Murani,,en,malapit sa isang mas malaking village na tinatawag na Mallappalli.,,en,Sa halos parehong oras B,,en,mas mahusay na kilala bilang Appu,,en,din ay dumating sa High Sanayan,,en, Santa Kumari Amma decided to move to the High Ranges. She had recently started working with KSEB which was building a hydro-electric project there.The place was generically called the High Ranges, even though the ranges weren’t all that high. People told her that the rough and tough High Ranges were no place for a country girl like her, but she wanted to go anyways, prompted mainly by the fact that there was some project allowance involved and she could use any little bit that came her way. Her family was quite poor. She came from a small village called Murani (near a larger village called Mallappalli.)

Around the same time B. Thulasidas (better known as Appu) also came to the High Ranges. Ang kanyang familty ay hindi lahat na mahirap at hindi niya talaga kailangan ang dagdag na pera,,en,Ngunit naisip niya,,en,hey rowdy lugar anyway,,en,ano ang ano ba,,en,upang makagawa ng isang mahabang maikling kuwento,,en,sila ay nahulog sa pag-ibig at nagpasyang magpakasal,,en,Ito ay ilang oras sa Setyembre,,en,Ang isang taon mamaya Sandya ay ipinanganak sa Nobyembre,,en,At isang maliit na higit sa isa pang taon at ako ay dumating upang maging,,en,Ang buong stroy,,ru,ay nagaganap sa estado ng,,en,ang pangungusap na iyon ay idinagdag lamang upang ilagay ang mga link doon,,en,kung sakali ikaw ay interesado.,,en,May ay isang gorgeous burol resort na tinatawag na,,en,ibig sabihin ay tatlong ilog,,en,kung saan ang aking mga magulang ay nagtatrabaho sa oras na iyon at iyon ang kung saan ako ay ipinanganak,,en,bago lang,,en,sila,,en,at ako,,en,na ginagawang we Hulaan ko,,en,inilipat sa Trivandrum,,en,ang kabisera ng lungsod ng Kerala,,en,Ako ay nakatira sa Trivandrum hanggang ako ay,,en,Maraming mga bagay ang nangyari sa mga taon,,en. But he thought, hey rowdy place anyway, what the heck? Mahusay, to make a long story short, they fell in love and decided to get married. This was some time in September 1962. A year later Sandya was born in Nov 63. And a little over another year and I came to be! (This whole stroy, sa pamamagitan ng ang paraan, is taking place in the state of Kerala sa India. Mahusay, that sentence was added just to put the links there, just in case you are interested.) There is a gorgeous hill resort called Munnar (meaning three rivers) where my parents were employed at that time and that’s where I was born.

 [casual picture] Just before 1970, they (and me, which makes it we I guess) moved to Trivandrum, the capital city of Kerala. I lived in Trivandrum till I was 17. Lots of things happened in those years, ngunit dahil sa post na ito pa rin,,en,at palaging magiging,,en,trabaho sa pag-unlad,,en,Hindi ko masasabi sa iyo ang lahat ng tungkol ito ngayon,,en,Ako inilipat sa Madras,,en,pamamalagiang sundin ang aking BTech sa Electronics at Communication sa,,en,Tumawag sila sa IITs MIT ng Indya,,en,lamang magkano ang mas mahirap na makipag,,en,Sa aking batch,,en,doon ay tungkol sa,,en,mag-aaral na nakikipagkumpitensya para sa tungkol,,en,lugar,,en,Ako ay na-raranggo,,en,sa kanila,,en,Ako ay lubos na matalino academically,,en,kita mo.,,en,At bilang maaari mong isipin,,en,maraming bagay ang nangyari sa mga apat na taon pati na rin,,en,Ngunit sa kabila ng lahat ng iyon,,en,Nagtapos ako sa Agosto,,en,at got ang aking BTech degree na,,en,pagkatapos ng aking BTech,,en,ginawa ko kung ano ang pinaka-IITians ay dapat na gawin,,en,Ako inilipat sa estado,,en,upstate,,en,New York,,en,ang aking destination,,en,Ako ay sumali sa,,en,physics Department,,en,pamamalagiang sundin ang aking PhD sa High Energy Physics,,en,at boy,,en,ginawa ng isang pulutong ng mga bagay na mangyayari sa panahon ng mga,,en,Kalahati ng mga,,en,taon ang ginugol sa,,en (and always will be) work in progress, I can’t tell you all about it now.

Sa 1983, I moved to Madras, to do my BTech in Electronics and Communication at IIT, Madras. (They call the IITs the MIT of India, only much harder to get in. In my batch, there were about 75,000 students competing for about 2000 places. I was ranked 63 among them. I’m quite smart academically, you see.) And as you can imagine, lots of things happened in those four years as well. But despite all that, I graduated in August 1987 and got my BTech degree.

Sa 1987, after finishing my BTech, I did what most IITians are supposed to do. I moved to the states. Upstate New York was my destination. I joined the Physics Department ng Syracuse University to do my PhD in High Energy Physics. And boy, did a lot of things happen during those 6 taon! Half of those 6 years were spent at Cornell University,,en,sa Ithaca,,en,Iyon ay sa Agosto,,en,pagkatapos noong,,en,ang prestihiyosong French national organisasyon ng pananaliksik,,en,CNRS,,hmn,Center national de la mabini Scientifique,,fr,upahan ako,,en,Lumipat ako sa,,en,upang ipagpatuloy ang aking pananaliksik trabaho sa,,en,Aking destinasyon sa France ay ang Provencal lungsod ng,,en,Marseilles,,en,Aking tahanan institute ay,,en,Marseille Particle Physics Center,,fr,CPPM,,la,Hindi ako nagsasalita ng isang salita ng Pranses,,en,ngunit iyon ay hindi abala sa akin magkano,,en,Bago pagpunta sa US sa,,en,Hindi ko makipag-usap magkano Ingles / Americanese alinman.,,en,Katapusan ng,,en,sa Disyembre 29,,en,Nakatanggap ako kasal sa,,en,Noong unang bahagi ng,,en,Kavita ring inilipat sa France,,en,Kavita ay hindi masyadong masaya sa Pransya dahil siya nadama siya ay maaaring makagawa ng higit pa sa Singapore,,en,Tama siya,,en,Kavita ngayon ay isang tapos na negosyante na may,,en,dalawang boutiques,,en,sa Singapore at,,en,higit pang mga ideya ng negosyo,,en,kaysa ay mabuti para sa kanya,,en in Ithaca.

That was in Aug. 1987. Then in 1993 Mag-anak na Irlandes, the prestigious French national research organization ( CNRS – “Centre national de la recherche scientifique”) hired me. I moved to France to continue my research work at ALEPH, CERN. My destination in France was the provencal city of Marseilles. My home institute was “Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille” o CPPM. Oo naman, I didn’t speak a word of French, but that didn’t bother me much. (Before going to the US in 1987, I didn’t speak much English/Americanese either.)

End of 1995, on the 29th of Dec, I got married to Kavita. In early 1996, Kavita also moved to France. Kavita wasn’t too happy in France because she felt she could do much more in Singapore. She was right. Kavita is now an accomplished entrepreneur with two boutiques in Singapore and more business ideas than is good for her. Siya ay nanalo ng maraming mga parangal at ay isang,,en,menor de edad tanyag na tao,,en,sa Singapore media,,en,Nakakuha ako ng isang mahusay na alok mula sa ano ngayon ay ang,,en,Institute para sa Infocomm Research,,en,at kami ay nagpasya na lumipat sa Singapore,,en,Kabilang sa mga iba't-ibang mga personal na mga dahilan para sa paglipat,,en,ang dapat kong banggitin na ang amoy ng,,en,Racisim,,la,sa Marseilles air ay isa,,en,Kahit na ang bawat indibidwal Personal ko pa nakikilala sa Pransya ay mahusay na,,en,Ako palaging ay nagkaroon ng isang mapag-angil pakiramdam na ang bawat isa ko,,en,Hindi nakamit,,en,Nais mo ako doon,,en,Pakiramdam na ito ay karagdagang nakumpirma na sa pamamagitan ng mga clerks immigration sa airport Marignane patuloy na humihiling sa akin upang,,en,Kumilos tabi,,fr,at paminsan-minsan bulongbulungan,,en,ang unang pranses.,,fr,Isang linggo matapos kong inilipat sa Singapore,,en,sa 24rth ng Hulyo,,en,Anita,,en,ipinanganak,,en,Hindi kapani-paniwalang maganda at masaya,,en minor celebrity with the Singapore media. [Wedding picture]

Sa 1998, I got a good offer from what is now the Institute for Infocomm Research and we decided to move to Singapore. Among the various personal reasons for the move, I should mention that the smell of racisim in the Marseilles air was one. Although every individual I personally met in France was great, I always had a nagging feeling that every one I did not meet wanted me out of there. This feeling was further confirmed by the immigration clerks at the Marignane airport constantly asking me to “Mettez-vous a cote, maginoo” and occassionally murmuring “les francais d’abord.”  [Anita Smiles]

A week after I moved to Singapore, on the 24rth of July 1998, Anita was born. Incredibly cute and happy, Anita rearranged ang aming mga prayoridad at ilagay ang mga bagay sa pananaw,,en,Limang taon mamaya,,en,sa Mayo 2,,en,Neil ay ipinanganak,,en,He proved na maging mas puno ng ngiti,,en,Nagtrabaho ako sa isang pulutong ng mga iba't-ibang mga katawan-based measurements sa pagbuo ng ilang mga patente at mga papeles,,en,Patungo sa dulo ng aking karera sa A-Star,,en,Nagtrabaho ako sa mga signal sa utak,,en,hindi nababahala tungkol sa kung paano magkaroon ng kahulugan ng mga ito at gawin silang makipag-usap nang direkta sa isang computer,,en,Ang pananaliksik direksyon naiimpluwensyahan ang aking pag-iisip tremendously,,en,bagaman hindi sa isang paraan ng aking employer Gusto na nagustuhan,,en,Nagsimula ako nag-iisip tungkol sa papel na ginagampanan ng pang-unawa sa ating pananaw mundo at,,en,dahil dito,,en,sa teoryang ng pisika,,en,Natanto ko rin ang mga kaisipang ito ay hindi ihiwalay musings,,en,ngunit ang atriculated sa iba't-ibang mga paaralan ng pilosopiya,,en. Five years later, on the 2nd of May 2003, Neil was born. He proved to be even more full of smiles.  [Neil Smiles more!]

In Singapore, I worked on a lot of various body-based measurements generating several patents and papers. Towards the end of my career with A-Star, I worked on brain signals, worrying about how to make sense of them and make them talk directly to a computer. This research direction influenced my thinking tremendously, though not in a way my employer would’ve liked. I started thinking about the role of perception in our world view and, consequently, in the theories of physics. I also realized how these ideas were not isolated musings, but were atriculated in various schools of philosophy. Ang linya ng pag-iisip sa huli ay napunta sa aking mga libro,,en,Patungo sa ikalawang kalahati ng,,en,Ako ay nagpasya na ibato pananaliksik at makakuha ng sa nabibilang na pananalapi,,en,na kung saan ay isang perpektong domain para sa isang cash-strapped physicist,,en,Ito ay naka-out na ako ay nagkaroon ng ilang mga kasanayan at aptitudes na kapwa kapaki-pakinabang sa aking employer at ang aking sarili,,en,Ang aking unang trabaho ay bilang ulo ng nabibilang na koponan analyst & nbsp;,,en,OCBC,,la,& Nbsp; isang panrehiyong bangko sa Singapore,,en,& Nbsp; marahil & nbsp; mas mahalaga,,en,Standard Chartered Bank,,en,bilang senior na nabibilang na propesyonal na pagkuha ng pag-aalaga ng kanilang in-house platform kalakalan,,en,na kung saan karagdagang pinahusay na ang aking "malaking larawan,,en,sa halip ako mahusay na kinikilala sa aking field,,en,at bilang isang regular na tagapamahala para sa,,en,Ako ay nag-publish ng ilang mga artikulo sa isang iba't ibang mga paksa na may kaugnayan sa quants at nabibilang na pananalapi,,en, Ang imitasyon Universe.

Towards the second half of 2005, I decided to chuck research and get into quantitative finance, which is an ideal domain for a cash-strapped physicist. It turned out that I had some skills and aptitudes that were mutually lucrative to my employers and myself. My first job was as the head of the quantitative analyst team at OCBC, a regional bank in Singapore. Ang gitnang trabaho opisina, kinasasangkutan ng pamamahala sa peligro at curtailing ebullient mangangalakal, gave me a thorough overview of pricing models and, perhaps more importantly, perpektong-unawa sa mga hindi pagkakasundo na hinihimok ng pagpapatupad ng panganib ganang kumain ng bangko.

 [Dad] Mamaya sa, sa 2007, I moved to Standard Chartered Bank, as a senior quantitative professional taking care of their in-house trading platform, which further enhanced my "big picture" outlook and inspired me to write Mga Prinsipyo ng nabibilang na Development. I am rather well recognized in my field, and as a regular columnist for the Wilmott Magazine, I have published several articles on a variety of topics related to quants and quantitative finance, na kung saan ay marahil kung bakit John Wiley,,en,Sons Ltd,,en,nagtanong ako sa sumulat ng aklat na ito,,en,Sa kabila ng mga propesyonal na tagumpay,,en,sa personal na front,,en,ay naging isang taon ng kalungkutan,,en,Nawala ko ang aking ama sa Oktubre 22,,en,pagkamatay ng isang magulang,,en,ay isang bastos na wake-up call,,en,Ito ay nagdudulot ng tungkol sa mga damdamin ng pagkawala at sakit na mahirap upang maunawaan,,en,at imposible upang makipag-usap,,en,At para sa mga sa atin na may maliit na regalo ng madaling self-expression,,en,sila nagtatagal para sa mas mahaba kaysa sa mga ito ay marahil dapat,,en & Sons Ltd. asked me to write this book.

Despite these professional successes, on the personal front, 2008 has been a year of sadness. I lost my father on the 22nd of October. Ang death of a parent is a rude wake-up call. It brings about feelings of loss and pain that are hard to understand, and impossible to communicate. And for those of us with little gift of easy self-expression, they linger for longer than they perhaps should.

Sansinukob – Sukat at Edad

-Post ko ang tanong na ito na Iniistorbo ako kapag nabasa ko na nakakita sila ng isang kalawakan ng mga bandang 13 bilyon na light years ang layo. Aking-unawa sa mga pahayag na: Sa distansya ng 13 bilyon light years, nagkaroon ng kalawakan 13 bilyong taon ang nakalipas, upang maaari naming makita ang liwanag mula sa ito ngayon. Hindi na nangangahulugan na ang uniberso ay hindi bababa sa 26 bilyong taon? Dapat itong kinunan ng kalawakan tungkol sa 13 bilyong taon upang maabot kung saan lumalabas na ito ay, at ang liwanag mula dito ay dapat gumawa ng isa pang 13 bilyong taon upang maabot sa amin.

Sa pagsagot sa aking katanungan, Martin at Swansont (na ipinapalagay ko ay akademikong phycisists) ituro ang aking mga maling at mahalagang hilingin sa akin na matuto nang higit pa. Lahat ay dapat sumagot sa kapag ako assimilated, ito ay lilitaw! 🙂

Debate na ito ay na-publish bilang isang pasimula sa aking post sa Big Bang teorya, pagdating up sa isang araw o dalawa.

Mowgli 03-26-2007 10:14 PM

Sansinukob – Sukat at Edad
I was reading a post in http://www.space.com/ stating that they found a galaxy at about 13 bilyon na light years ang layo. Ako ay sinusubukan upang malaman kung anong na pahayag paraan. Akin, nangangahulugan ito na 13 bilyong taon ang nakalipas, ang kalawakan na ito ay kung saan namin makita ito ngayon. Ay hindi na kung ano 13b .ly ang layo ng paraan? Kung gayon, Hindi na nangangahulugan na ang uniberso ay dapat na hindi bababa sa 26 bilyong taon? Ibig kong sabihin, ang buong uniberso na nagsimula sa isang isahan point; kung paano ang kalawakan na ito ay kung saan ito ay 13 bilyong taon ang nakalipas maliban kung ito ay may hindi bababa sa 13 bilyong taon upang makarating doon? (Ang hindi pagpansin sa mga phase ng implasyon para sa ilang sandali…) Narinig ko ang mga tao na ipaliwanag ang puwang nito ay pagpapalawak. Ano ang ginagawa ng ano ba masama na? Ay hindi ito lamang ang may interes paraan ng pagsabi na ang bilis ng liwanag ay mas maliit ng ilang oras ang nakalipas?
swansont 03-27-2007 09:10 AM

Sumipi:

Orihinal na-post sa pamamagitan ng Mowgli
(Mag-post ng 329204)
Ibig kong sabihin, ang buong uniberso na nagsimula sa isang isahan point; kung paano ang kalawakan na ito ay kung saan ito ay 13 bilyong taon ang nakalipas maliban kung ito ay may hindi bababa sa 13 bilyong taon upang makarating doon? (Ang hindi pagpansin sa mga phase ng implasyon para sa ilang sandali…)

Ang hindi pagpansin sa lahat ng mga natitirang, kung paano ang magiging ibig sabihin na ito ang uniberso ay 26 bilyong taon?

Sumipi:

Orihinal na-post sa pamamagitan ng Mowgli
(Mag-post ng 329204)
Narinig ko ang mga tao na ipaliwanag ang puwang nito ay pagpapalawak. Ano ang ginagawa ng ano ba masama na? Ay hindi ito lamang ang may interes paraan ng pagsabi na ang bilis ng liwanag ay mas maliit ng ilang oras ang nakalipas?

Ang bilis ng liwanag ay taglay na bahagi ng atomic istraktura, sa masarap na istraktura pare-pareho (alpha). Kung c ay ang pagbabago, pagkatapos ay ang mga pattern ng atomic Spectra ay magkakaroon upang baguhin. May ay hindi pa nakumpirma ang anumang data na nagpapakita na ang alpha ay nagbago (ay nagkaroon ng paminsan-minsang mga papel na nagke-claim ito, ngunit kailangan mo ng isang tao upang ulitin ang mga sukat), at ang iba pa ay pare-pareho ang lahat na walang pagbabago.

Martin 03-27-2007 11:25 AM

Upang kumpirmahin o mapalakas ang kung ano ang sinabi swansont, may mga haka-haka at ang ilan palawit o hindi karaniwang cosmologies na kasangkot c pagbabago sa paglipas ng panahon (o alpha pagbabago sa paglipas ng panahon), ngunit ang pagbabago ng constants bagay lamang ay makakakuha ng higit pa at higit pa pinasiyahan out.I've ay nanonood para sa higit sa 5 taon at ang mas maraming mga tao ang hitsura at pag-aralan ang katibayan malabong tila na mayroong anumang pagbabago. Mamuno nila ito ang higit pa at mas tumpak na gamit ang kanilang data.So ito ay marahil pinakamahusay na huwag pansinin ang “-iiba-iba ang bilis ng liwanag” cosmologies hanggang sa isa ay lubusan pamilyar sa standard mainstream kosmolohiya.Mayroon kang maling Mowgli

  • Pangkalahatang kapamanggitan (ang 1915 teorya) trumps Espesyal na rel (1905)
  • Hindi sila tunay na magkasalungatan kung naiintindihan mo ang mga ito nang tama, dahil SR ay may lamang isang napaka-limitadong lokal na applicability, tulad ng sa sasakyang dumaraan sa pamamagitan ng:-)
  • Hangga't .gr at SR ay tila sumalungat, Naniniwala .gr. Ito ay ang mas malawak teorya.
  • .gr Walang limitasyon sa bilis sa rate na maaaring taasan ang napaka mahusay na mga distansya. ang tanging limitasyon ng bilis ay nasa LOKAL mga bagay-bagay (hindi ka maaaring abutin ang mga at pumasa isang poton)
  • Kaya namin at HUWAG obserbahan bagay na receding mula sa amin na mas mabilis kaysa c. (Ito ay malayo, SR ay hindi nalalapat.)
  • Ito ay ipinaliwanag sa isang artikulo Sci Am tingin ko noong nakaraang taon
  • Google ang pangalan ng may-akda Charles Lineweaver at Tamara Davis.
  • Alam namin ang tungkol sa maraming bagay-bagay na ay kasalukuyang higit sa 14 bilyon .ly layo.
  • Kailangan mong matuto nang ilang kosmolohiya kaya sanay ka malito sa pamamagitan ng mga bagay na ito.
  • Gayundin isang “katangian” ay hindi nangangahulugan ng isang solong punto. iyon ay isang sikat na pagkakamali dahil ang mga salita ng tunog ang parehong.
  • Ang isang katangian ay maaaring mangyari sa buong rehiyon, kahit na isang walang-katapusang rehiyon.

Gayundin ang “big bang” modelo ay hindi mukhang isang pagsabog ng matter whizzing ang layo mula sa ilang mga punto. Hindi ito dapat naisip na tulad ng. Ang pinakamahusay na artikulo na nagpapaliwanag karaniwang pagkakamali mga tao ay may ito ay Lineweaver at Davis bagay sa Sci Am. Sa tingin ko Jan o Pebrero 2005 ngunit maaari kong maging off sa isang taon. Google ito. Kunin ito mula sa iyong lokal na aklatan o mahanap ito online. Pinakamahusay na payo maaari kong bigyan.

Mowgli 03-28-2007 01:30 AM

Upang swansont kung bakit naisip ko 13 ipinahiwatig b .ly ng edad na 26 b taon:Kapag sinabi mo na mayroong isang kalawakan sa 13 b .ly layo, Nauunawaan ko ito sa nangangahulugan na 13 bilyong taon na ang nakalipas ang aking oras, ang kalawakan ay sa punto kung saan nakikita ko ito ngayon (na kung saan ay 13 b .ly ang layo mula sa akin). Alam na nagsimula ang lahat mula sa parehong punto, ito ay dapat na kinuha sa kalawakan ng hindi bababa sa 13 b taon upang makakuha ng kung saan ito ay 13 b taon na ang nakalipas. Kaya 13+13. Ako ba na dapat ako wrong.To Martin: Kayo ay tama, Kailangan kong malaman ang tila higit pa tungkol sa kosmolohiya. Ngunit ang dalawang bagay na iyong nabanggit sorpresahin sa akin — paano ko namin obserbahan ang mga bagay-bagay na receding mula sa bilang FTL? Ibig kong sabihin, hindi ang relativistic shift formula Doppler bigyan haka-haka 1 z? At ang mga bagay na lampas sa 14 b .ly layo – ang mga ito ay “sa labas” uniberso?Ako ay tiyak na hanapin at basahin ang mga may-akda nabanggit mo. Salamat.
swansont 03-28-2007 03:13 AM

Sumipi:

Orihinal na-post sa pamamagitan ng Mowgli
(Mag-post ng 329393)
Upang swansont kung bakit naisip ko 13 ipinahiwatig b .ly ng edad na 26 b taon:Kapag sinabi mo na mayroong isang kalawakan sa 13 b .ly layo, Nauunawaan ko ito sa nangangahulugan na 13 bilyong taon na ang nakalipas ang aking oras, ang kalawakan ay sa punto kung saan nakikita ko ito ngayon (na kung saan ay 13 b .ly ang layo mula sa akin). Alam na nagsimula ang lahat mula sa parehong punto, ito ay dapat na kinuha sa kalawakan ng hindi bababa sa 13 b taon upang makakuha ng kung saan ito ay 13 b taon na ang nakalipas. Kaya 13+13. Ako ba na dapat kong mali.

Iyon ay depende sa kung paano mo gawin ang iyong mga pag-calibrate. Naghahanap lamang sa isang shift Doppler at binabalewala ang lahat ng iba pang mga kadahilanan, kung alam mo na bilis iniuugnay sa distansya, kang makakuha ng isang tiyak na redshift at gusto mo marahil i-calibrate na kahulugan 13b .ly kung iyon ay ang aktwal na distansya. Liwanag na magiging 13b taong gulang.

Ngunit bilang Martin ay itinuturo out, puwang ay pagpapalawak; ang kosmolohiko redshift ay naiiba mula sa shift Doppler. Dahil sa mga pumapagitang mga puwang ay pinalawak na, AFAIK ang liwanag na nakakakuha sa amin mula sa isang kalawakan 13b .ly ang layo ay hindi bilang lumang, dahil ito ay mas malapit na ang ilaw ay napalabas. Gusto ko isipin na ang lahat ng ito ay isinasaalang-alang sa mga sukat, kaya na kapag ang isang distansya ay ibinibigay sa kalawakan, ito ay ang aktwal na distansya.

Martin 03-28-2007 08:54 AM

Sumipi:

Orihinal na-post sa pamamagitan ng Mowgli
(Mag-post ng 329393)
Ako ay tiyak na hanapin at basahin ang mga may-akda nabanggit mo.

May post na ito 5 o 6 mga link sa mga artikulo na Sci Am sa pamamagitan ng Lineweaver at Davis

http://scienceforums.net/forum/showt…965#post142965

Ito ay post #65 sa Astronomiya nagli-link ng mga sticky thread

Ito ay lumiliko out ang artikulo ay sa Marso 2005 pagpapalabas.

Sa tingin ko ito ay medyo madaling basahin—mahusay na nakasulat na. Kaya dapat itong makatulong.

Kapag nabasa mo na ang artikulong Sci Am, hilingin sa higit pang mga tanong—ang iyong mga katanungan ay maaaring maging masaya upang subukan at sagot:-)

Twin PARADOHA – Kumuha 2

Ang Twin PARADOHA ay karaniwang ipinaliwanag ang layo sa pamamagitan ng arguing na ang paglalakbay twin nararamdaman ang galaw dahil sa kanyang acceleration / pagbabawas ng bilis, at samakatuwid ay mas mabagal edad.

Ngunit ano ang mangyayari kung ang parehong pabilisin symmetrically ang twins? Iyon ay, simulan nila mula sa natitira mula sa isang puwang point na may-synchronize orasan, at bumalik sa parehong puwang point nagpapahinga sa pamamagitan ng accelerating ang layo mula sa bawat isa sa ilang panahon at decelerating sa paraan likod. Sa pamamagitan ng mahusay na proporsyon ng problema, parang na kapag ang dalawang orasan ay magkakasama sa dulo ng paglalakbay, sa parehong punto, at nagpapahinga na may paggalang sa isa't isa, mayroon sila upang sumang-ayon.

Pagkatapos muli, sa panahon ng buong paglalakbay, bawat orasan ay nasa paggalaw (pinabilis o hindi) may paggalang sa iba pang isa. Sa Slovakia, bawat orasan na nasa paggalaw na may paggalang sa orasan isang tagamasid ay dapat mas mabagal na pagtakbo. O, orasan ang tagamasid ay palaging ang pinakamabilis na. Kaya, para sa bawat twin, ang iba pang mga orasan ay dapat na tumatakbo mas mabagal. Gayunpaman, kapag dumating sila pabalik-sama sa dulo ng paglalakbay, mayroon sila upang sumang-ayon. Maaari itong mangyari lamang kung nakikita ng bawat twin orasan ng isa tumatakbo nang mas mabilis sa isang punto sa panahon ng paglalakbay. Ano ang SR sabihin ang mangyayari sa ganitong haka-haka na paglalakbay?

(Tandaan na ang pagpapabilis ng bawat twin maaaring gawing pare-pareho. Magkaroon ng mga twins-krus ang isa't isa sa isang mataas na bilis ng isang pare-pareho ang mga linear na pagbabawas ng bilis. Sila ay mag-krus muli ang isa't isa sa parehong bilis matapos ang ilang sandali. Sa panahon ng crossings, kanilang orasan maaaring maihambing.)

Unreal Time

Farsight wrote:Time is a velocity-dependent subjective measure of event succession rather than something fundamental – the events mark the time, the time doesn’t mark the events. This means the stuff out there is space rather than space-time, and is an “aether” veiled by subjective time.

I like your definition of time. It is close to my own view that time is “unreal.” It is possible to treat space as real and space-time as something different, as you do. This calls for some careful thought. I will outline my thinking in this post and illustrate it with an example, if my friends don’t pull me out for lunch before I can finish. :)

The first question we need to ask ourselves is why space and time seem coupled? The answer is actually too simple to spot, and it is in your definition of time. Space and time mix through our concept of velocity and our brain’s ability to sense motion. There is an even deeper connection, which is that space is a cognitive representation of the photons inputs to our eyes, but we will get to it later.

Let’s assume for a second that we had a sixth sense that operated at an infinite speed. Iyon ay, if star explodes at a million light years from us, we can sense it immediately. We will see it only after a million years, but we sense it instantly. Alam ko, it is a violation of SR, cannot happen and all that, but stay with me for a second. Ngayon, a little bit of thinking will convince you that the space that we sense using this hypothetical sixth sense is Newtonian. Dito, space and time can be completely decoupled, absolute time can be defined etc. Starting from this space, we can actually work out how we will see it using light and our eyes, knowing that the speed of light is what it is. It will turn out, malinaw, that we seen events with a delay. That is a first order (or static) epekto. The second order effect is the way we perceive objects in motion. It turns out that we will see a time dilation and a length contraction (for objects receding from us.)

Let me illustrate it a little further using echolocation. Assume that you are a blind bat. You sense your space using sonar pings. Can you sense a supersonic object? If it is coming towards you, by the time the reflected ping reaches you, it has gone past you. If it is going away from you, your pings can never catch up. Sa ibang salita, faster than sound travel is “forbidden.” If you make one more assumption – the speed of the pings is the same for all bats regardless of their state of motion – you derive a special relativity for bats where the speed of sound is the fundamental property of space and time!

We have to dig a little deeper and appreciate that space is no more real than time. Space is a cognitive construct created out of our sensory inputs. If the sense modality (light for us, sound for bats) has a finite speed, that speed will become a fundamental property of the resultant space. And space and time will be coupled through the speed of the sense modality.

Ito, oo naman, is only my own humble interpretation of SR. I wanted to post this on a new thread, but I get the feeling that people are a little too attached to their own views in this forum to be able to listen.

Leo wrote:Minkowski spacetime is one interpretation of the Lorentz transforms, but other interpretations, the original Lorentz-Poincaré Relativity or modernized versions of it with a wave model of matter (LaFreniere or Close or many others), work in a perfectly euclidean 3D space.

So we end up with process slowdown and matter contraction, but NO time dilation or space contraction. The transforms are the same though. So why does one interpretation lead to tensor metric while the others don’t? Or do they all? I lack the theoretical background to answer the question.

Hi Leo,

If you define LT as a velocity dependent deformation of an object in motion, then you can make the transformation a function of time. There won’t be any warping and complications of metric tensors and stuff. Actually what I did in my book is something along those lines (though not quite), as you know.

The trouble arises when the transformation matrix is a function of the vector is transforming. Kaya, if you define LT as a matrix operation in a 4-D space-time, you can no longer make it a function of time through acceleration any more than you can make it a function of position (as in a velocity field, halimbawa.) The space-time warping is a mathematical necessity. Because of it, you lose coordinates, and the tools that we learn in our undergraduate years are no longer powerful enough to handle the problem.

Of Rotation, LT and Acceleration

Sa “Philosophical Implications” forum, there was an attempt to incorporate acceleration into Lorentz transformation using some clever calculus or numerical techniques. Such an attempt will not work because of a rather interesting geometric reason. I thought I would post the geometric interpretation of Lorentz transformation (or how to go from SR to GR) dito.

Let me start with a couple of disclaimers. First of, what follows is my understanding of LT/SR/GR. I post it here with the honest belief that it is right. Although I have enough academic credentials to convince myself of my infallibility, who knows? People much smarter than me get proven wrong every day. At, if we had our way, we would prove even Einstein himself wrong right here in this forum, wouldn’t we? :D Pangalawa, what I write may be too elementary for some of the readers, perhaps even insultingly so. I request them to bear with it, considering that some other readers may find it illuminating. Thirdly, this post is not a commentary on the rightness or wrongness of the theories; it is merely a description of what the theories say. O sa halip, my version of what they say. With those disclaimers out of the way, let’s get started…

LT is a rotation in the 4-D space-time. Since it not easy to visualize 4-D space-time rotation, let’s start with a 2-D, pure space rotation. One fundamental property of a geometry (such as 2-D Euclidean space) is its metric tensor. The metric tensor defines the inner product between two vectors in the space. In normal (Euclidean or flat) spaces, it also defines the distance between two points (or the length of a vector).

Though the metric tensor has the dreaded “tensor” word in its name, once you define a coordinate system, it is only a matrix. For Euclidean 2-D space with x and y coordinates, it is the identity matrix (two 1’s along the diagonal). Let’s call it G. The inner product between vectors A and B is A.B = Trans(Ang isang) G B, which works out to be a_1b_1+a_2b_2. Distance (or length of A) can be defined as \sqrt{A.A}.

So far in the post, the metric tensor looks fairly useless, only because it is the identity matrix for Euclidean space. SR (or LT), sa kabilang banda, uses Minkowski space, which has a metric that can be written with [-1, 1, 1, 1] along the diagonal with all other elements zero – assuming time t is the first component of the coordinate system. Let’s consider a 2-D Minkowski space for simplicity, with time (t) and distance (x) axes. (This is a bit of over-simplification because this space cannot handle circular motion, which is popular in some threads.) In units that make c = 1, you can easily see that the invariant distance using this metric tensor is \sqrt{x^2 - t^2}.

Continued…

Ang imitasyon Universe — Discussion with Gibran

Hi again,You raise a lot of interesting questions. Let me try to answer them one by one.

You’re saying that our observations of an object moving away from us would look identical in either an SR or Galilean context, and therefore this is not a good test for SR.

What I’m saying is slightly different. The coordinate transformation in SR is derived considering only receding objects and sensing it using radar-like round trip light travel time. It is then ipinapalagay that the transformation laws thus derived apply to all objects. Because the round trip light travel is used, the transformation works for approaching objects as well, but not for things moving in other directions. But SR assumes that the transformation is a property of space and time and asserts that it applies to all moving (inertial) frames of reference regardless of direction.

We have to go a little deeper and ask ourselves what that statement means, what it means to talk about the properties of space. We cannot think of a space independent of our perception. Physicists are typically not happy with this starting point of mine. They think of space as something that exists independent of our sensing it. And they insist that SR applies to this independently existing space. I beg to differ. I consider space as a cognitive construct based on our perceptual inputs. There is an underlying reality that is the cause of our perception of space. It may be nothing like space, but let’s assume, for the sake of argument, that the underlying reality is like Galilean space-time. How would be perceive it, given that we perceive it using light (one-way travel of light, not two-way as SR assumes)? It turns out that our perceptual space would have time dilation and length contraction and all other effect predicted by SR. So my thesis is that the underlying reality obeys Galilean space-time and our perceptual space obeys something like SR. (It is possible that if I assume that our perception uses two-way light travel, I may get SR-like transformation. I haven’t done it because it seems obvious to me that we perceive a star, halimbawa, by sensing the light from it rather than flashing a light at it.)

This thesis doesn’t sit well with physicists, and indeed with most people. They mistake “perceptual effects” to be something like optical illusions. My point is more like space itself is an illusion. If you look at the night sky, you know that the stars you see are not “tunay” in the sense that they are not there when you are looking at them. This is simply because the information carrier, lalo liwanag, has a finite speed. If the star under observation is in motion, our perception of its motion is distorted for the same reason. SR is an attempt to formalize our perception of motion. Since motion and speed are concepts that mix space and time, SR has to operate on “space-time continuum.” Since SR is based on perceptual effects, it requires an observer and describes motion as he perceives it.

But are you actually saying that not a single experiment has been done with objects moving in any other direction than farther away? And what about experiments on time dilation where astronauts go into space and return with clocks showing less elapsed time than ones that stayed on the ground? Doesn’t this support the ideas inherent in SR?

Experiments are always interpreted in the light of a theory. Ito ay palagi a model based interpretation. I know that this is not a convincing argument for you, so let me give you an example. Scientists have observed superluminal motion in certain celestial objects. They measure the angular speed of the celestial object, and they have some estimate of its distance from us, so they can estimate the speed. If we didn’t have SR, there would be nothing remarkable about this observation of superluminality. Since we do have SR, one has to find an “explanation” for this. The explanation is this: when an object approaches us at a shallow angle, it can appear to come in quite a bit faster than its real speed. Thus the “tunay” speed is subluminal while the “maliwanag” speed may be superluminal. This interpretation of the observation, sa aking pagtingin, breaks the philosophical grounding of SR that it is a description of the motion as it appears to the observer.

Ngayon, there are other observations of where almost symmetric ejecta are seen on opposing jets in symmetric celestial objects. The angular speeds may indicate superluminality in both the jets if the distance of the object is sufficiently large. Since the jets are assumed to be back-to-back, if one jet is approaching us (thereby giving us the illusion of superluminality), the other jet has bet receding and can never appear superluminal, maliban kung, oo naman, the underlying motion is superluminal. The interpretation of this observation is that the distance of the object is limited by the “fact” that real motion cannot be superluminal. This is what I mean by experiments being open to theory or model based interpretations.

In the case of moving clocks being slower, it is never a pure SR experiment because you cannot find space without gravity. Bukod, one clock has to be accelerated or decelerated and GR applies. Kung hindi, the age-old twin paradox would apply.

I know there have been some experiments done to support Einstein’s theories, like the bending of light due to gravity, but are you saying that all of them can be consistently re-interpreted according to your theory? If this is so, it’s dam surprising! Ibig kong sabihin, no offense to you – you’re obviously a very bright individual, and you know much more about this stuff than I do, but I’d have to question how something like this slipped right through physicists’ fingers for 100 taon.

These are gravity related questions and fall under GR. My “teorya” doesn’t try to reinterpret GR or gravity at all. I put theory in inverted quotes because, sa akin, it is a rather obvious observation that there is a distinction between what we see and the underlying causes of our perception. The algebra involved is fairly simple by physics standards.

Supposing you’re right in that space and time are actually Galilean, and that the effects of SR are artifacts of our perception. How then are the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments explained? I’m sorry if you did explain it in your book, but it must have flown right over my head. Or are we leaving this as a mystery, an anomaly for future theorists to figure out?

I haven’t completely explained MMX, more or less leaving it as a mystery. I think the explanation hinges on how light is reflected off a moving mirror, which I pointed out in the book. Suppose the mirror is moving away from the light source at a speed of v in our frame of reference. Light strikes it at a speed of c-v. What is the speed of the reflected light? If the laws of reflection should hold (it’s not immediately obvious that they should), then the reflected light has to have a speed of c-v as well. This may explain why MMX gives null result. I haven’t worked out the whole thing though. I will, once I quit my day job and dedicate my life to full-time thinking. :-)

My idea is not a replacement theory for all of Einstein’s theories. It’s merely a reinterpretation of one part of SR. Since the rest of Einstein’s edifice is built on this coordinate transformation part, I’m sure there will be some reinterpretation of the rest of SR and GR also based on my idea. Muli, this is a project for later. My reinterpretation is not an attempt to prove Einstein’s theories wrong; I merely want to point out that they apply to reality as we perceive it.

Overall, it was worth the $5 I payed. Thanks for the good read. Don’t take my questions as an assault on your proposal – I’m honestly in the dark about these things and I absolutely crave light (he he). If you could kindly answer them in your spare time, I’d love to share more ideas with you. It’s good to find a fellow thinker to bounce cool ideas like this off of. I’ll PM you again once I’m fully done the book. Muli, it was a very satisfying read.

Salamat! I’m glad that you like my ideas and my writing. I don’t mind criticism at all. Hope I have answered most of your questions. Kung hindi, or if you want to disagree with my answers, feel free to write back. Always a pleasure to chat about these things even if we don’t agree with each other.

– Best regards,
– Mga kamay

Anti-relativity and Superluminality

Leo wrote:I have some problems with the introductory part though, when you confront light travel effects and relativistic transforms. You correctly state that all perceptual illusions have been cleared away in the conception of Special Relativity, but you also say that these perceptual illusions remained as a subconscious basis for the cognitive model of Special Relativity. Do I understand what you mean or do I get it wrong?

The perceptual effects are known in physics; they are called Light Travel Time effects (LTT, to cook up an acronym). These effects are considered an optical illusion on the motion of the object under observation. Once you take out the LTT effects, you get the “tunay” motion of the object . This real motion is supposed to obey SR. This is the current interpretation of SR.

My argument is that the LTT effects are so similar to SR that we should think of SR as just a formalization of LTT. (Sa katunayan, a slightly erroneous formalization.) Many reasons for this argument:
1. We cannot disentagle the “optical illusion” because many underlying configurations give rise to the same perception. Sa ibang salita, going from what we see to what is causing our perception is a one to many problem.
2. SR coordinate transformation is partially based on LTT effects.
3. LTT effects are stronger than relativistic effects.

Probably for these reasons, what SR does is to say that what we see is what it is really like. It then tries to mathematically describe what we see. (This is what I meant by a formaliztion. ) Mamaya sa, when we figured out that LTT effects didn’t quite match with SR (as in the observation of “maliwanag” superluminal motion), we thought we had to “take out” the LTT effects and then say that the underlying motion (or space and time) obeyed SR. What I’m suggesting in my book and articles is that we should just guess what the underlying space and time are like and work out what our perception of it will be (because going the other way is an ill-posed one-to-many problem). My first guess, nang natural, was Galilean space-time. This guess results in a rather neat and simple explantions of GRBs and DRAGNs as luminal booms and their aftermath.

Discussion on the Daily Mail (UK)

On the Daily Mail forum, one participant (na tinatawag na “whats-in-a-name”) started talking about Ang imitasyon Universe on July 15, 2006. It was attacked fairly viciously on the forum. I happened to see it during a Web search and decided to step in and defend it.

15 Hulyo, 2006

Posted by: whats-in-a-name on 15/07/06 sa 09:28 AM

Ah, Kek, you’ve given me a further reason to be distracted from what I should be doing- and I can tell you that this is more interesting at the moment.I’ve been trying to formulate some ideas and there’s one coming- but I’ll have to give it to you in bits.I don’t want to delve into pseudoscience or take the woo-ish road that says that you can explain everything with quantum theory, but try starting here: http://theunrealuniverse.com/phys.shtml

Ang “Journal Article” link at the bottom touches on some of the points that we discussed elsewhere. It goes slightly off-topic, but you might also find the “Pilosopiya” link at the top left interesting.

Posted by: patopreto on 15/07/06 sa 06:17 PM

Regarding that web site wian.One does not need to ead past this sentence –

Ang teoryang ng pisika ay isang paglalarawan ng katotohanan. Katotohanan ay nilikha out sa pagbabasa mula sa aming mga pandama. Knowing that our senses all work using light as an intermediary, is it a surprise that the speed of light is of fundamental importance in our reality?

to realise that tis web site is complete ignorant hokum. I stopped at that point.

16 Hulyo, 2006

Posted by: whats-in-a-name on 16/07/06 sa 09:04 AM

I’ve just been back to read that bit more carefully. I don’t know why the writer phrased it like that but surely what he meant was:(i) “Our perception of what is real is created out of the readings from our senses.” I think that most physicists wouldn’t argue with that would they? At the quantum level reality as we understand it doesn’t exist; you can only say that particles have more of a tendency to exist in one place or state than another.(ii) The information that we pick up from optical or radio telescopes, gamma-ray detectors and the like, shows the state of distant objects as they were in the past, owing to the transit time of the radiation. Delving deeper into space therefore enables us to look further back into the history of the universe.It’s an unusual way to express the point, Sumasang-ayon ako, but it doesn’t devalue the other information on there. In particular there are links to other papers that go into rather more detail, but I wanted to start with something that offered a more general view.

I get the impression that your study of physics is rather more advanced than mine- as I’ve said previously I’m only an amateur, though I’ve probably taken my interest a bit further than most. I’m happy to be corrected if any of my reasoning is flawed, though what I’ve said so far s quite basic stuff.

The ideas that I’m trying to express in response to Keka’s challenge are my own and again, I’m quite prepared to have you or anyone else knock them down. I’m still formulating my thoughts and I wanted to start by considering the model that physicists use of the nature of matter, going down to the grainy structure of spacetime at the Plank distance and quantum uncertainty.

I’ll have to come back to this in a day or two, but meanwhile if you or anyone else wants to offer an opposing view, please do.

Posted by: patopreto on 16/07/06 sa 10:52 AM

I don’t know why the writer phrased it like that but surely what he meant was:

I think the write is quit clear! WIAN – you have re-written what he says to mean something different.

The writer is quite clear – “Once we accept that space and time are a part of the cognitive model created by the brain, and that special relativity applies to the cognitive model, we can ponder over the physical causes behind the model, the absolute reality itself.”

Blah Blah Blah!

The writer, Kamay Thulasidas, is an employee of OCBC bank in Singapore and self-described “amateur philosopher”. What is he writes appears to be nothing more than a religiously influenced solipsistic philosophy. Solipsism is interesting as a philosophical standpoint but quickly falls apart. If Manoj can start his arguments from such shaky grounds without explanation, then I really have no other course to take than to accept his descriptions of himself as “amateur”.

Maybe back to MEQUACK!