Ограничения восприятия и познания в релятивистской физике

The following sections (and figures) have been abridged out of this post. Полная версия статьи доступна в виде PDF-файла.

3 LTT Effects for Approaching Objects

3.1 Asymmetric Effects
3.2 Time Contraction and Length Expansion
3.3 Higher-Order Perceptual Effects

4. Explanations Based on LTT Effects

4.1 Twins Paradox
4.2 Superluminality and Causality
4.3 Superluminal Motion
Figure 2
Рисунок 2. Illustration of the traditional explanation for the observed superluminal motion. An object expanding at a speed ratio = 0.8, starting from a single point S. The solid circle represents the boundary one second later. The observer is far away on the right hand side, O (at infinite distance). The dashed ellipse is the apparent boundary of the object, as seen by the observer.
4.4 Symmetric Radio Sources
Figure 3
Рисунок 3. The radio jet and lobes in the hyperluminous radio galaxy Cygnus A. Горячие точки в двух лепестков, регион Ядро и самолеты хорошо видны. (Reproduced from an image courtesy of
Figure 4
Рисунок 4. The top panel (a) shows an object flying along A_-BA at a constant superluminal speed. The observer is at O. The object crosses B (the point of closest approach to O) во время t=0. The bottom panel (б) shows how the object is perceived by the observer at O. It first appears at , then splits into two. The two apparent objects seem to go away from each other (along J_1 и J_2) as shown.
Figure 5
Рисунок 5. The apparent angular positions of an object traveling at different speeds at a distance y of one million light years from us. The angular positions (\phi in radians) are plotted against the observer’s time t_O in years.
Figure 6
Рисунок 6. Time evolution of the redshift from a superluminal object. It shows the redshifts expected from an object moving at \beta = 300 at a distance of ten million light years from us. The X axis is the observer’s time in years. (Since the X axis scales with time, it is also the redshift from an object at 116 light days –ten million light seconds–with the X axis representing t_O in seconds.)
4.5 Redshifts of the Hotspots
4.6 Гамма-всплесков