We know a lot. 通过 “我们,” I mean humanity as a whole. We know so much that it is impossible for any one of us to know more than a fraction of our total knowledge. This is why we specialize.
Specialization is good. It lets us cut deep into a specific field of endeavor; but at the expense of a broad overview of everything, 自然. Specialization is expected of professionals. You wouldn’t be happy if you found out that your dentist is, 事实上, a well-known philosopher as well. Or that your child’s ENT surgeon secretly teaches astrophysics in the local university.
Isn’t there a danger lurking behind our habit of demanding super specialized silos of knowledge? One obvious danger is the loss of synergy and potential innovation. A case in point — 欧洲核研究组织的粒子物理学家,,en,面临访问不同计算机和网络上的各种文件的问题,,en,熟悉计算问题,,en,物理学家提供了描述文件的好方法,,en,如现在所知,,en,资源,,en,并突然第一个URL,,en,通用资源定位器,,en,出生,,en,其余的是历史,,en,我们有万维网,,en,互联网,,en,十五年后,,en,你有电子商务和YouTube,,en,如果欧洲核子研究中心坚持认为他们的物理学家只做物理学并将计算问题留给IT部门,,en,互联网可能根本没有实现,,en,它可能需要很长时间才能实现,,en,专业化的需求不仅限于个人,,en (欧洲核子研究中心) faces the problem of accessing various files on different computers and networks. Being conversant in computing issues, the physicist devices a nice way of describing the file (或, as it is known now, the resource) and suddenly the first URL (Universal Resource Locator) is born. The rest is history — we have the World Wide Web, the Internet. Fifteen years later, you have e-commerce and YouTube!
If CERN had insisted that their physicists do only physics and leave their computing problems to the IT department, the Internet may not have materialized at all. 或, it may have taken a lot longer to materialize.
The need for specialization is not limited to individuals. 它以典型的劳动分工形式（如人力资源）渗透到现代工作场所,,en,IT和业务,,en,这个部门已经运行良好很多年了,,en,但每隔一段时间,,en,这种孤岛的专业知识变得如此分散和分散，以至于该组织忽略了其基本目标,,en,孤岛里的人开始互相攻击,,en,争夺资源和认可,,en,而不是合作共同获得成功,,en,一个典型组织中最常见的贱民是IT部门,,en,如果系统中有任何问题出现问题，这些可怜的人总是会大喊大叫,,en,但是，当一切工作正常,,en,没有人注意到它们,,en,在当今无处不在的电脑素养时代,,en,为什么不承担一些系统责任，以便在PC故障排除中的周转时间,,en, 金融, IT and Business. This division has worked well for ages. But every once in a while, the expertise in such silos becomes so split and scattered that the organization loses sight of its basic objective. People in the silos begin work against each other, competing for resources and recognition, rather than collaborating for common success.
The most common pariah in a typical organization is the IT department. These poor folks always get shouted at if anything at all goes wrong in the system. But when everything is working fine, nobody even notices them. In today’s age of ubiquitous computer literacy, why not assume a bit of system responsibility so that the turnaround time in PC troubleshooting (从而提高生产力,,en,可以改进,,en,我们知道为什么,,en,谈到电脑,,en,对于事情可能会有多糟糕没有限制,,en,正如IT谚语所说的那样,,en,人非圣贤孰能,,en,但要完全弄脏事情需要一台电脑,,en,最终用户可能会将系统搞得如此完整，以至于即使是IT部门也是如此,,en,一种罕见的商品,,en,可能会发现恢复正常状态是不可能的,,en,为了对抗这种自我毁灭,,en,虽然是善意的,,en,趋势,,en,IT部门已经走向另一个极端，使得它变得如此官僚化，几乎不可能得到任何帮助,,en,审计人员是另一个在高度监管的组织中受到严厉批评的组织,,en,他们吃力不讨好的工作就是看看每个人的肩膀，并确保他们遵守游戏规则,,en) can be improved?
事实上, we know why. When it comes to computers, there is no limit to how bad things can get. As the IT proverb says, to err is human, but to completely foul up things requires a computer. End users may screw up the system so completely that even a competent IT department (a rare commodity) may find it impossible to restore normalcy. 但, in order to fight this self-destructive (though well-intentioned) tendency, IT departments have gone to the other extreme of making it so bureaucratic and practically impossible to get their help in anything at all!
Another group that gets a bad rap in a highly regulated organization is the auditors. Their thankless job is to look over everybody’s shoulder and make sure that they are following the rules of the game (或者更确切地说，, 遵守政策和法规,,en,审计,,en,崇高的意图因一个致命的缺陷而变得黯然失色,,en,他们似乎通过他们可以找到多少违规来衡量他们的成功,,en,而不是与被审计的人携手合作,,en,审计人员看起来好像在与其他人密切合作,,en,模糊组织中刚性筒仓的边缘可以提高生产力,,en,当孤岛互相交谈时,,en,团队合作发生了，孤岛中的人们意识到他们都朝着共同的目标努力,,en). Auditors’ noble intentions get eclipsed by one fatal flaw: they seem to measure their success by how many violations they can find. Instead of working hand in hand with those being audited, the auditors come across as though they are conspiring against the rest.
There is productivity to be gained by blurring the edges of rigid silos in organizations. When silos talk to each other, teamwork happens and those in the silos realize that they all work toward a common goal.