Archivi categoria: Il giornale di oggi

Le mie colonne pubblicati (o di prossima pubblicazione) sul giornale di oggi

Knowledge Silos

We know a lot. Da “noi,” I mean humanity as a whole. We know so much that it is impossible for any one of us to know more than a fraction of our total knowledge. This is why we specialize.

Specialization is good. It lets us cut deep into a specific field of endeavor; but at the expense of a broad overview of everything, naturalmente. Specialization is expected of professionals. You wouldn’t be happy if you found out that your dentist is, infatti, a well-known philosopher as well. Or that your child’s ENT surgeon secretly teaches astrophysics in the local university.

Isn’t there a danger lurking behind our habit of demanding super specialized silos of knowledge? One obvious danger is the loss of synergy and potential innovation. A case in point — a particle physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) faces the problem of accessing various files on different computers and networks. Being conversant in computing issues, the physicist devices a nice way of describing the file (o, as it is known now, the resource) and suddenly the first URL (Universal Resource Locator) is born. The rest is history — we have the World Wide Web, the Internet. Fifteen years later, you have e-commerce and YouTube!

If CERN had insisted that their physicists do only physics and leave their computing problems to the IT department, the Internet may not have materialized at all. O, it may have taken a lot longer to materialize.

The need for specialization is not limited to individuals. It permeates into the modern workplace in the form of a typical division of labor such as HR, Finanza, IT and Business. This division has worked well for ages. But every once in a while, the expertise in such silos becomes so split and scattered that the organization loses sight of its basic objective. People in the silos begin work against each other, competing for resources and recognition, rather than collaborating for common success.

The most common pariah in a typical organization is the IT department. These poor folks always get shouted at if anything at all goes wrong in the system. But when everything is working fine, nobody even notices them. In today’s age of ubiquitous computer literacy, why not assume a bit of system responsibility so that the turnaround time in PC troubleshooting (and consequently productivity) can be improved?

Infatti, we know why. When it comes to computers, there is no limit to how bad things can get. As the IT proverb says, to err is human, but to completely foul up things requires a computer. End users may screw up the system so completely that even a competent IT department (a rare commodity) may find it impossible to restore normalcy. Ma, in order to fight this self-destructive (though well-intentioned) tendency, IT departments have gone to the other extreme of making it so bureaucratic and practically impossible to get their help in anything at all!

Another group that gets a bad rap in a highly regulated organization is the auditors. Their thankless job is to look over everybody’s shoulder and make sure that they are following the rules of the game (ovvero, complying with policies and regulations). Auditors’ noble intentions get eclipsed by one fatal flaw: they seem to measure their success by how many violations they can find. Instead of working hand in hand with those being audited, the auditors come across as though they are conspiring against the rest.

There is productivity to be gained by blurring the edges of rigid silos in organizations. When silos talk to each other, teamwork happens and those in the silos realize that they all work toward a common goal.

Internet Reading

Major changes are afoot. They have been afoot for the last twenty years. I’m talking about how we learn things, how we read, how we do basic arithmetic and so on.

In high school, I used logarithm tables to work out results in physics and chemistry experiments. Calculators were not allowed. Though inconvenient, this practice honed my arithmetic skillsskills that calculators and spreadsheets have eroded by now.

Similar erosion is taking place in our reading skills as well. We don’t read to retain information or knowledge any more. We search, scan, locate keywords, browse and bookmark. The Internet is doing to our reading habits what the calculator did to our arithmetic abilities.

Easy access to information is transforming our notion of (dare I say, respect for?) knowledge in a fundamental way. In a knowledge economy, knowledge is fast becoming a cheap commodity. We don’t need to know stuff any more; we just need to know how to find it.

I was talking to a lecturer the other day. According to him, a good lecturer is not the one who knows most and has a deep understanding of the subject, but the one that can locate the answer the fastest.

The power of instant information came with the Internet, which made experts of all of us. We can now make intelligent comments and informed decisions on anything.

Suppose, per esempio, your child’s doctor recommends the proceduremyringotomy,” quite possibly something you have never heard of before. But you can Google it, leggere (scusa, browse) the first couple of search results, and you will know the rationale behind the doctor’s advice, the exact procedure, its risk factors and benefits, e così via. In ten minutes, you will know what took the doctor years of hard work to learn.

This easy access to knowledge may, quite mistakenly, diminish your respect for the medical degree. This diminished reverence for knowledge is unwise; a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. A doctor’s expertise is not so much in memorizing a webpage worth of information, but also in knowing all the special circumstances where that information doesn’t apply. Oltre a, the webpage you happened to read may be just plain wrong. We should be careful not to mistake easy information for deep knowledge. Let’s guard our respect for true knowledge and wisdom despite our access to ready information.

Such misguided lack of respect is evident in the workplace as well, where managers think they can always hire specialized knowledge at will. I had a friend who was planning to roll out a product using Bluetooth, back when it was an emerging technology. I pointed out the obvious flaw in his proposalhe didn’t know much about Bluetooth. His reply was, “No big deal! I’ll just hire somebody who does!”

My worry is, when everybody wants to hire a Bluetooth expert and nobody wants to know how it works, there won’t be an expert any longer.

Knowledge is not cheap, although our easy access to it through the Internet may indicate otherwise. When we all become users of information, our knowledge will stop at its current level, because nobody will be creating it any more.

We are not there yet, but I worry that we are heading that way. I worry about the support structure of our knowledge base. How will our knowledge empire stand when all its foundations are gone?

To Know or Not To Know

Technical knowledge is not always a good for you in the modern workplace. Unless you are careful, others will take advantage of your expertise and dump their responsibilities on you. You may not mind it as long as they respect your expertise. Ma, they often hog the credit for your work and present their ability to evade work as people management skills.

People management is better rewarded than technical expertise. This differentiation between experts and middle-level managers in terms of rewards is a local Asian phenomenon. Qui, those who present the work seem to get the credit for it, regardless of who actually performs it. We live in a place and time where articulation is often mistaken for accomplishments.

In the West, technical knowledge is more readily recognized than smooth presentations. You don’t have to look beyond Bill Gates to appreciate the heights to which technical expertise can take you in the West. Naturalmente, Gates is more than an expert; he is a leader of great vision as well.

Leaders are different from people managers. Leaders provide inspiration and direction. They are sorely needed in all organizations, big and small. They are not to be confused with middle-level folks who keep harping on the “immagine grande,” il “value-chain” and such, and spend all their working hours in meetings. You know who I am talking about. Why should they get such hefty salaries when they know and do so little?

Unlike people mangers, technical experts are smart cookies. They can easily see that if they want to be people managers, they can get started with a tie and a good haircut. If the pickings are rich, why wouldn’t they?

Going the other way is a lot harder though. For a pure people manager to become a technical expert, it takes a lot more than losing the tie. But why would anybody want to be an expert in the current corporate climate here? Slim pickings, davvero.

Is it time to hide your knowledge, get that haircut, grab that tie, and become a people manager? It comes down to your personal choice. Knowledge gives you technical authority and a sense of indispensability. But it also sets you up for a stunted career progression. So the choice is between fulfillment and satisfaction on the one hand, and convenience and promotions on the other.

I wonder whether we have already made our choices, even in our personal lives. We find fathers who cannot get the hang of changing diapers or other household chores. Is it likely that men cannot figure out washing machines and microwaves although they can operate complicated machinery at work? We also find ladies who cannot balance their accounts and estimate their spending. Is it really a mathematical impairment, or a matter of convenience?

Talvolta, the lack of knowledge is as potent a weapon as its abundance. Sì, knowledge is a double-edged sword. Use it wisely!

Sposato con la Job — Till Death Do Us Part?

Stress is as much a part of our corporate careers as death is a fact of life. Ancora, it is best to keep the two (career and death) separate. This is the message that was lost on some hardworking young souls here who literally worked themselves to death. So do a lot of Japanese, if we are to believe the media.

The reason for death in sedentary jobs is the insidious condition called deep vein thrombosis. This condition develops because of extended hours spent sitting, when a blood clot forms in the lower limbs. The clot then travels to the vital organs in the upper body, where it wreaks havoc including death.

The trick in avoiding such an untimely demise, naturalmente, is not to sit for long. But that is easier said than done, when job pressure mounts, and deadlines loom.

Here is where you have to get your priorities straight. What do you value more? Quality of life or corporate success? The implication in this choice is that you can’t have both, as illustrated in the joke in investment banking that goes like: “If you can’t come in on Saturday, don’t bother coming in on Sunday!”

Puoi, tuttavia, make a compromise. It is possible to let go a little bit of career aspirations and improve the quality of life tremendously. This balancing act is not so simple though; nothing in life is.

Undermining work-life balance are a few factors. One is the materialistic culture we live in. It is hard to fight that trend. Second is a misguided notion that you can “make it” primo, then sit back and enjoy life. That point in time when you are free from worldly worries rarely materializes. In terzo luogo, you may have a career-oriented partner. Even when you are ready to take a balanced approach, your partner may not be, thereby diminishing the value of putting it in practice.

These are factors you have to constantly battle against. And you can win the battle, with logic, discipline and determination. Tuttavia, there is a fourth, much more sinister, factor, which is the myth that a successful career is an all-or-nothing proposition, as implied in the preceding investment banking joke. It is a myth (perhaps knowingly propagated by the bosses) that hangs over our corporate heads like the sword of Damocles.

Because of this myth, people end up working late, trying to make an impression. But an impression is made, not by the quantity of work, but by its quality. Turn in quality, impactful work, and you will be rewarded, regardless of how long it takes to accomplish it. Long hours, secondo me, make the possibility of quality work remote.

Such melancholy long hours are best left to workaholics; they keep working because they cannot help it. It is not so much a career aspiration, but a force of habit coupled with a fear of social life.

To strike a work-life balance in today’s dog eat dog world, you may have to sacrifice a few upper rungs of the proverbial corporate ladder. Raging against the corporate machine with no regard to the consequences ultimately boils down to one simple realization — that making a living amounts to nothing if your life is lost in the process.

Indifferenza sponsale — Diamo un Dannazione?

Dopo una lunga giornata di lavoro, vuoi per riposare la mente esausta; può essere che si desidera gongolare un po 'le vostre piccole vittorie, o lamentarsi un po 'i vostri piccoli contrattempi del giorno. La vittima ideale per questo la catarsi mentale è il vostro coniuge. Ma il coniuge, nelle famiglie a reddito doppio di oggi, è anche affetto da una mente stanca alla fine della giornata.

La conversazione tra due menti stanche di solito manca un ingrediente essenziale — l'ascoltatore. E una conversazione senza un ascoltatore non è molto più di una conversazione a tutti. Si tratta semplicemente di due monologhi che finiranno per generare una più battuta d'arresto a piagnucolare su — l'indifferenza sponsale.

L'indifferenza non è cosa da poco per deridere. E 'il contrario dell'amore, se dobbiamo credere Elie Weisel. Così noi abbiamo in guardia contro l'indifferenza, se vogliamo avere un colpo a felicità, per una vita senza amore è raramente felice.

“Dove c'è tempo?” chiedere noi Singapore, troppo occupato per formare una frase completa. Ah… tempo! Al centro di tutte le nostre preoccupazioni mondane. Abbiamo solo 24 ore di esso in un giorno prima di domani arriva la ricarica in, cancellando tutti i nostri nobili intenzioni del giorno. E inizia un altro ciclo, un'altra rivoluzione inesorabile della grande ruota, e la corsa del ratto va avanti.

Il problema con la corsa del ratto è che, al termine di essa, anche se si vince, sei ancora un ratto!

Come possiamo rompere questo circolo vizioso? Possiamo cominciare con l'ascolto, piuttosto che parlare. L'ascolto non è così facile come sembra. Noi di solito ascoltiamo con un sacco di filtri mentali acceso, costantemente giudicare e di trasformazione di tutto si sente. Etichettiamo le dichiarazioni in arrivo come importante, utile, banale, patetico, etc. E noi li conserviamo via con pesi appropriati nel nostro cervello stanco, ignorando un fatto cruciale — che le etichette di chi parla possono essere, e spesso sono, completamente diverso.

A causa di questo potenziale mislabeling, quello che potrebbe essere la vittoria più importante o angoscia della giornata per il coniuge o il partner possono accidentalmente vengono posate in cestino della mente. Evitare questa crudeltà non intenzionale; disattivare i filtri e ascoltare con il cuore. Come consiglia Wesley Snipes Woody Herrelson in Chi non salta bianco è, ascoltare la sua (o lui, come il caso.)

Vale la pena di praticare un tale stile di ascolto imparziale e incondizionato. Si armonizza le vostre priorità con quelle il coniuge e si tira fuori dall'abisso di apatia sponsale. Ma non esiste una cosa come un pranzo gratuito. Ci vogliono anni di pratica per sviluppare la tecnica corretta di ascolto, e ha continuato la pazienza e lo sforzo deliberato per applicarlo.

“Dove c'è tempo?” si può chiedere. Bene, facciamo tempo, o fare il meglio di quel poco tempo che abbiamo ottenuto. Altrimenti, quando le giornate aggiungere fino a mesi e anni, possiamo guardare indietro e meraviglia, dove è la vita che abbiamo perso in vita?

Quanto è Talent Worth?

Singapore needs foreign talent. This need is nothing to feel bad about. It is a statistical fact of life. For every top Singaporean in any field — be it science, medicine, finanza, sports or whatever — we will find about 500 professionals of equal caliber in China and India. Not because we are 500 times less talented, just that they have 500 times more people.

Coupled with overwhelming statistical supremacy, certain countries have special superiority in their chosen or accidental specializations. We expect to find more hardware experts in China, more software gurus in India, more badminton players in Indonesia, more entrepreneurial spirit and managerial expertise in the west.

We need such experts, so we hire them. But how much should we pay them? That’s where economics comes in — demand and supply. We offer the lowest possible package that the talent would bite.

I was on an expatriate package when I came to Singapore as a foreign talent. It was a fairly generous package, but cleverly worded so that if I became a “local” talento, I would lose out quite a bit. I did become local a few years later, and my compensation diminished as a consequence. My talent did not change, just the label from “foreign” a “local.”

This experience made me think a bit about the value of talent and the value of labels. These values translate to compensation packages that can be ordered, from high to low, come: Western (Caucasians), Western (of Asian origin), Singapore, Asian (Chinese, Indian, eccetera).

I’m not saying that all Caucasians in Singapore do better than all Indians and Chinese in terms of income; but the trend is that for the same talent, Caucasians tend to be better compensated that their Asian counterparts. Nothing wrong with thatit’s all about demand and supply, and the perception of value and such economic fundamentals. Oltre a, this compensation scheme has worked well for us so far.

Tuttavia, the locals are beginning to take note of this asymmetric compensation structure. When I was considering hiring a Caucasian, my ex-boss commented, “These Ang-Mos, they talk big in meetings and stuff, but don’t do any work!” He may have oversimplified; I know manyAng-Moswho are extremely talented and fully deserve the higher-than-local compensation they enjoy. But this perceived disparity between what the talent is worth and how much it costs (as depicted in the movie I Not Stupid) is beginning to hurt employee loyalty to such an extent that firms are experiencing staff retention issues when it comes to local talents.

The solution to this problem is not a stricter enforcement of the confidentiality of salaries, but a more transparent compensation scheme free of anomalies that can be misconstrued as unfair practices. Altrimenti, we may see an increasing number of Asian nationals using Singapore as a stepping stone to greener pastures. Peggio, we may see locals seeking level playing fields elsewhere.

Let’s hire the much needed talent whatever it costs; but let’s not mistake labels for talent.

valutazione delle prestazioni — Chi ne ha bisogno?

Andiamo attraverso questa prova ogni anno quando i nostri padroni valutano le nostre prestazioni. La nostra progressione di carriera, bonus e stipendio da essa dipendono. Quindi passiamo notti insonni agonizzante su di esso.

Oltre alla valutazione, abbiamo anche la nostra “indicatore chiave di prestazione” o KPI per il prossimo anno. Questi sono i comandamenti che dobbiamo vivere per il resto dell'anno. L'intera esperienza di esso è così spiacevole che diciamo a noi stessi che la vita come un dipendente succhia.

I padroni cavano meglio però difficilmente. Essi devono preoccuparsi le proprie valutazioni dai boss più grandi. In cima a quello, hanno alle imbarcazioni i comandamenti KPI anche per noi — un lavoro dannatamente difficile da delegare. Con ogni probabilità, dicono a se stessi che la loro vita come un boss succhia!

Dato che nessuno è entusiasta circa l'esercizio di valutazione delle prestazioni, il motivo per cui lo facciamo? Chi ne ha bisogno?

L'obiettivo alla base di valutazione delle prestazioni è nobile. Si sforza di premiare i migliori e punire spettacoli poveri — il vecchio carota e bastone gestione paradigma. Questo obiettivo è facilmente ottenuta in una piccola organizzazione senza la necessità di un processo di valutazione formale. Proprietari di piccole imprese sanno chi tenere e che a sacco. Ma in un grande corpo aziendale con migliaia di dipendenti, come si fa a progettare un sistema di indennizzo equo e coerente?

La soluzione, naturalmente, è quello di pagare una bella sommetta per i consulenti che progettano forme di valutazione e definire un processo uniforme — troppo uniforme, forse. Tali forme verbose e processi rigidi sono dotati di problemi inerenti. Un problema è che l'attenzione si sposta dall'obiettivo originale (bastone e carota) alla correttezza e coerenza (taglia unica). Intendiamoci, la maggior parte dei capi sanno chi premiare e chi ammonire. Ma il reparto risorse umane vuole i padroni a seguire un processo uniforme, aumentando così il carico di lavoro di tutti.

Un altro, problema più insidioso con questo approccio di consulenza guidata è che è necessariamente orientata verso la mediocrità. Quando si progetta un processo di valutazione per soddisfare a tutti, il meglio che si può sperare di raggiungere è quello di migliorare il livello medio delle prestazioni per un po '. Dopo tale processo, lo scienziato del CERN che ha inventato il World Wide Web sarebbe cavata male, per lui non concentrarsi sulla sua KPIs e sprecato tutto il suo tempo a pensare a trasferimenti di file!

Il CERN è un luogo che produce costantemente premi Nobel. (Ho una volta mi sono trovato con due premi Nobel in un ascensore di CERN!) Come fare? Certamente non seguendo i processi che sono stati progettati per apportare miglioramenti incrementali a livello medio. Il trucco è quello di essere un centro di eccellenza che attira geni.

Naturalmente, non è giusto per confrontare un'organizzazione media con il CERN. Ma dobbiamo renderci conto che le forme verbose, che si concentrano su medie e promuovere la mediocrità, sono uno strumento povero per la gestione dell'innovazione.

Una valida alternativa ai processi di valutazione standardizzati e irreggimentato è quello di allineare gli obiettivi dei dipendenti con quelli dell'organizzazione e lasciare le prestazioni e premiare la gestione di boss. Con un po 'di fortuna, questo approccio può mantenere geni marginali e promuovere l'innovazione. Almeno, sarà alleviare alcuni ansia dei dipendenti e notti insonni.

Gestione Goodbyes

Hold on to your pants, your key staff has just tendered his resignation — your worst nightmare as a manager! Once the dust settles and the panic subsides, you begin to ask yourself, what next?

Staff retention is a major problem in the current job market in Singapore. Our economy is doing well; our job market is red hot. Di conseguenza, new job offers are becoming increasingly more irresistible. At some stage, someone you work closely with — be it your staff, your boss or a fellow team member — is going to hand in that dreaded letter to HR. Handling resignations with tact and grace is no longer merely a desirable quality, but an essential corporate skill today.

We do have some general strategies to deal with resignations. The first step is to assess the motivation behind the career choice. Is it money? Se è così, a counter offer is usually successful. Counter offers (both making them and taking them) are considered ineffective and in poor taste. Almeno, executive search firms insist that they are. Ma allora, they would say that, wouldn’t they?

If the motivation behind the resignation is the nature of the current or future job and its challenges, a lateral movement or reassignment (possibly combined with a counter offer) can be effective. If everything fails, then it is time to say goodbye — amicably.

It is vitally important to maintain this amicability — a fact often lost on bosses and HR departments. Understandably so because, by the time the counter offer negotiations fail, there is enough rancor on both sides to sour the relationship. Brush those wounded feelings aside and smile through your pain, for your paths may cross again. You may rehire the same person. O, you may end up working with him/her on the other side. Salvage whatever little you can for the sake of positive networking.

The level of amicability depends on corporate culture. Some organizations are so cordial with deserting employees that they almost encourage desertion. Others treat the traitors as the army used to — with the help of a firing squad.

Both these extremes come with their associated perils. If you are too cordial, your employees may treat your organization as a stepping stone, concentrating on acquiring only transferable skills. On the other extreme, if you develop a reputation for severe exit barriers in an attempt to discourage potential traitors, you may also find it hard to recruit top talent.

The right approach lies somewhere in between, like most good things in life. It is a cultural choice that an organization has to make. But regardless of where the balance is found, resignation is here to stay, and people will change jobs. Modifica, as the much overused cliche puts it, is the only constant.

Il mondano Malayalees

Se una media sente di Singapore della Conferenza Mondiale Malayalee, la prima cosa che vorrei dire è, “Mondo che cosa ora??” Malayalees sono persone del piccolo stato indiano di Kerala. Essi non devono essere confusi con malesi, anche se alcune delle cose che noi associamo con Malese (Come Pratas e biriyani) può essere fatta risalire a Kerala.

Tali scambi culturali trasversali indicano un importante tratto di Malayalees. Tendono a ventaglio e, nei loro piccoli modi, conquistare il mondo. Sono benvenuti anche influenze esterne con tutto il cuore. Sono forse le uniche persone (diverso Cinese, naturalmente) che utilizzano regolarmente un wok cinese per la cottura o una rete cinese per la cattura il pesce. Hanno anche professare la propria versione di Kung-fu, e, a volte insistono sul fatto che i cinesi effettivamente imparato da loro.

Internazionale e cosmopolita nei loro modi unici per migliaia di anni, Malayalees sono una miscela degli opposti, e Kerala un enigma economica e sociologica minore. Malayalees entusiasticamente abbracciato il cristianesimo e le religioni musulmana quando i loro missionari e emissari iniziali avventuravano fuori delle loro luoghi di origine. Ma, hanno inoltre accolto con favore il marxismo e ateismo con uguale fervore.

In media, Kerala ha un reddito pro-capite tra i più poveri del mondo, ma tutti gli altri indicatori economici sono alla pari con il mondo del più ricco. In indicatori di salute, come l'aspettativa di vita, numero pro-capite dei medici, e la mortalità infantile, Kerala riesce a rispecchiare gli Stati Uniti a circa un decimo della sua ricchezza pro capite. Kerala è il primo (e forse l'unico) terza provincia mondo per vantarsi di meglio di 90% alfabetizzazione, ed è praticamente l'unico posto in India e in Cina con più donne che uomini.

Singapore ha un posto speciale nel cuore Malayalee. Tra le loro imprese iniziali fuori Kerala durante l'era coloniale, Malayalees mirati Singapore come una destinazione popolare. Forse a causa di questa predilezione storica, Malayalees trovarono naturale per ospitare la loro Conferenza mondiale Malayalee qui.

Singapore ha anche debole per Malayalees ei loro contributi. La conferenza stessa sarà onorato dalla presenza del Presidente di Singapore, Sig.. S. R. Nathan e il Ministro degli Affari Esteri, Sig.. George Yeo. Presidente Nathan lancerà la Mostra Malayalee Beni e le Attività Culturali, e il Ministro Yeo darà una chiave di discorso nota alla Business Forum.

Il patrimonio e la cultura, risalente a oltre 2000 anni, è qualcosa che ogni Malayalee è giustamente orgoglioso di. La Mostra presenterà tutto da incisioni rupestri di tecnologia antica costruzione navale.

Andando oltre le affinità storiche e culturali, Kerala è anche stato un business alleato per Singapore, soprattutto in frutti di mare crudi. Singapore, nel loro diritto, ha fornito un flusso costante di investimenti e turisti di Kerala.

Eco-turismo è infatti una delle principali attrazioni Malayalees sarà in mostra durante la conferenza. La natura è stata troppo gentile con Kerala, con le colline ondulate della Ghat occidentale generosamente usurpare i monsoni e conservando gelosamente i Malayalees contro ogni possibile saccheggio delle loro ricchezze verdi. Benedetto con un clima temperato raro l'enclave tropicale che è, e con la bellezza ipnotica delle verdi colline nebbiose e piantagioni di tè, Kerala è davvero un paradiso di attesa, forse controvoglia, da scoprire.

Questa Conferenza mondiale Malayalalee, con i suoi spettacoli culturali e mostre patrimonio, mostrerà cosa Kerala ha da offrire al mondo, dal turismo e cultura per le opportunità di business e di talenti. Si presenterà anche Singapore alla diaspora Malayalee e insegnare loro una cosa o due riguardo l'efficienza amministrativa, pulizia e affari connettività.